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Special article
Nutrition survey methods and food composition database update of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study
Seon-Joo Park, Jieun Lyu, Kyoungho Lee, Hae-Jeung Lee, Hyun-Young Park
Epidemiol Health. 2024;e2024042.   Published online April 2, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2024042    [Accepted]
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Abstract
This study presents the nutrition survey methods and the updated food composition database for the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES). The KoGES, which is the largest and longest cohort study in Korea, aims to identify genetic and environmental factors associated with chronic diseases. This study has collected dietary data using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and/or the 24-hour recall method. However, these dietary survey methods use different food composition databases, and their nutritional values are out of date. Therefore, it became necessary to update the food composition database by correcting errors in nutrient analysis values to reflect improvements in the performance of food ingredient analysis equipment, revising international values ​​to analysis values ​​of Korean agricultural products, adjusting nutrient units, and adding newly reported nutrients related to chronic diseases. For this purpose, we integrated the different food composition databases used in each nutrition survey, updated 23 nutrients, and expanded 48 new nutrients for 3,648 food items using the latest reliable food composition databases published by national and international institutions. This revised food composition database may help to clarify the relationship between various nutrients and chronic diseases. It could serve as a valuable resource for nutritional, epidemiological, and genomic research and provide a basis for determining public health policies.
Summary
Original articles
Association of decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate with lung cancer risk in the Korean population
Soonsu Shin, Min-Ho Kim, Chang-Mo Oh, Hyejin Chun, Eunhee Ha, Hyo Choon Lee, Seong Ho Moon, Dong-Young Lee, Dosang Cho, Sangho Lee, Min Hyung Jung, Jae-Hong Ryoo
Epidemiol Health. 2024;e2024041.   Published online March 20, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2024041    [Accepted]
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Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Inconsistent results are available regarding the association between low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and lung cancer risk. We aimed to explore the risk of lung cancer according to eGFR category in the Korean population.
METHODS
We included 358,293 adults who underwent health checkups between 2009 and 2010, utilizing data from the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort. Participants were categorized into 3 groups based on their baseline eGFR, as determined using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation: group 1 (eGFR ≥90 mL/min/1.73m2), group 2 (eGFR ≥60 to <90mL/min/1.73m2), and group 3 (eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73m2). Incidences of lung cancer were identified using the corresponding codes from the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were employed to calculate the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for lung cancer incidence up to 2019.
RESULTS
In multivariate analysis, group 2 exhibited a 26.5% higher risk of developing lung cancer than group 1 (HR, 1.265; 95% CI, 1.189 to 1.346). Furthermore, group 3 demonstrated a 72.5% elevated risk of lung cancer relative to group 1 (HR, 1.725; 95% CI, 1.577 to 1.887). Among participants with dipstick proteinuria of 2+ or greater, group 3 faced a significantly higher risk of lung cancer than group 1 (HR, 2.928; 95% CI, 1.375 to 6.237).
CONCLUSION
Low eGFR was significantly associated with increased lung cancer risk within the Korean population. A particularly robust association was observed in individuals with severe proteinuria, emphasizing the need for further investigation.
Summary
Effect of the human papillomavirus vaccine on the risk of genital warts: a nationwide cohort study of South Korean adolescent girls
Jaeyoung Cho, Eun Mi Kim, Jihye Kim, Ju-Young Shin, Eui Hyeok Kim, Jong Heon Park, Seunghyun Lewis Kwon, Geun-Yong Kwon, Soon-Ae Shin, Jaiyong Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2024;e2024040.   Published online March 18, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2024040    [Accepted]
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Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination administered to adolescent girls through South Korea’s National Immunization Program.
METHODS
This retrospective cohort study included individuals who were 12 to 13 years old, whether vaccinated or unvaccinated, between July 2016 and December 2017. The incidence of genital warts (GWs) was monitored through 2021. Time-stratified hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated, adjusting for birth year, socioeconomic status, and the level of urbanization of the region, and were presented with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Data were sourced from the Immunization Registry Integration System, linked with the National Health Information Database.
RESULTS
The study included 332,062 adolescent girls, with an average follow-up period of approximately 4.6 years. Except for the first year, the HRs for the vaccinated group were lower than those for the unvaccinated group. The HRs for specific cutoff years were as follows: year 2, 0.62 (95% CI, 0.31 to 1.13); year 3, 0.58 (95% CI, 0.35 to 0.96); and year 4 and beyond, 0.39 (95% CI, 0.28 to 0.52).
CONCLUSIONS
Our findings indicate that HPV vaccination was associated with a reduction in the risk of GWs among adolescent girls. Notably, this reduction became significant as the incidence of GWs increased with age.
Summary
Unraveling trends in schistosomiasis: deep learning insights into national control programs in China
Qing Su, Cici Xi Chen Bauer, Robert Bergquist, Zhiguo Cao, Fenghua Gao, Yi Hu, Zhijie Zhang
Epidemiol Health. 2024;e2024039.   Published online March 13, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2024039    [Accepted]
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Abstract
OBJECTIVES
To achieve the ambitious goal of eliminating schistosome infections, the Chinese government has implemented diverse control strategies. This study explored the progress of the 2 most recent national schistosomiasis control programs in an endemic area along the Yangtze River in China.
METHODS
We obtained village-level parasitological data from cross-sectional surveys combined with environmental data in Anhui Province, China from 1997 to 2015. A convolutional neural network (CNN) based on a hierarchical integro-difference equation (IDE) framework (i.e., CNN-IDE) was used to model spatio-temporal variations in schistosomiasis. Two traditional models were also constructed for comparison with 2 evaluation indicators: the mean-squared prediction error (MSPE) and continuous ranked probability score (CRPS).
RESULTS
The CNN-IDE model was the optimal model, with the lowest overall average MSPE of 0.04 and the CRPS of 0.19. From 1997 to 2011, the prevalence exhibited a notable trend: it increased steadily until peaking at 1.6 per 1000 in 2005, then gradually declined, stabilizing at a lower rate of approximately 0.6 per 1000 in 2006, and approaching zero by 2011. During this period, noticeable geographic disparities in schistosomiasis prevalence were observed; high-risk areas were initially dispersed, followed by contraction. Predictions for the period 2012 to 2015 demonstrated a consistent and uniform decrease.
CONCLUSIONS
The proposed CNN-IDE model captured the intricate and evolving dynamics of schistosomiasis prevalence, offering a promising alternative for future risk modeling of the disease. The comprehensive strategy is expected to help diminish schistosomiasis infection, emphasizing the necessity to continue implementing this strategy.
Summary
Worsening of health disparities across COVID-19 pandemic stages in Korea
Hyejin Lee, Hyunwoo Nam, Jae-ryun Lee, Hyemin Jung, Jin Yong Lee
Epidemiol Health. 2024;e2024038.   Published online March 13, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2024038    [Accepted]
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Abstract
OBJECTIVES
With the end of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the health outcomes of this disease in Korea must be examined. We aimed to investigate health outcomes and disparities linked to socioeconomic status during the COVID-19 pandemic in Korea and to identify risk factors for hospitalization and mortality.
METHODS
This nationwide retrospective study incorporated an analysis of individuals with and without COVID-19 in Korea between January 1, 2020, and December 31, 2022. The study period was divided into 4 stages. Prevalence, hospitalization, mortality, and case-fatality rates were calculated per 100,000 population. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify risk factors for COVID-19 hospitalization and mortality.
RESULTS
Overall, the incidence rate was 40,601 per 100,000 population, the mortality rate was 105 per 100,000 population, and the case-fatality rate was 259 per 100,000 cases. A total of 12,577,367 new cases (24.5%) were recorded in stage 3 and 8,979,635 cases (17.5%) in stage 4. Medical Aid recipients displayed the lowest 3-year cumulative incidence rate (32,737 per 100,000) but the highest hospitalization (5,663 cases per 100,000), mortality (498 per 100,000), and case-fatality (1521 per 100,000) rates. Male sex, older age, lower economic status, non-metropolitan area of residence, high Charlson comorbidity index, and disability were associated with higher risk of hospitalization and death. Vaccination was found to reduce mortality risk.
CONCLUSIONS
As the pandemic progressed, surges were observed in incidence, hospitalization, and mortality, exacerbating disparities associated with economic status and disability. Nevertheless, Korea has maintained a low case-fatality rate across all economic groups.
Summary
Interactions between vitamin B2, the MTRR rs1801394 and MTR rs1805087 genetic polymorphisms, and colorectal cancer risk in a Korean population
Madhawa Gunathilake, Minji Kim, Jeonghee Lee, Jae Hwan Oh, Hee Jin Chang, Dae Kyung Sohn, Aesun Shin, Jeongseon Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2024;e2024037.   Published online March 11, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2024037    [Accepted]
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Abstract
OBJECTIVES
We explored whether the association between vitamin B2 and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk could be modified by the MTRR rs1801394 and MTR rs1805087 genetic polymorphisms and examined whether the interaction effects are sex-specific.
METHODS
We performed a case‒control study involving 1,420 CRC patients and 2,840 controls from the Korea National Cancer Center. Dietary vitamin B2 intake was assessed using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, and the association with CRC was evaluated. Genotyping was performed using an Illumina MEGA-Expanded Array. For gene-nutrient interaction analysis, pre-matched (1,081 patients and 2,025 controls) and matched (1,081 patients and 1,081 controls) subsets were included. Unconditional and conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).
RESULTS
A higher intake of vitamin B2 was associated with a significantly lower CRC risk (OR=0.65; 95% CI, 0.51-0.82; p<0.001). Carriers of at least 1 minor allele of MTRR rs1801394 showed a significantly higher CRC risk (OR=1.43; 95% CI, 1.12-1.83). Men homozygous for the major allele (A) of MTRR rs1801394 and who had a higher intake of vitamin B2 had a significantly lower CRC risk (OR=0.31; 95% CI, 0.18-0.54; p-interaction=0.02). In MTR rs1805087, men homozygous for the major allele (A) and who had a higher vitamin B2 intake had a significantly lower CRC risk (OR=0.38; 95% CI, 0.25-0.60; p-interaction<0.001).
CONCLUSIONS
The MTRR rs1801394 and MTR rs1805087 genetic polymorphisms may modify the association between vitamin B2 and CRC risk, particularly in men. However, further studies are warranted to confirm these interaction results.
Summary
Epidemiologic investigation
Salmonellosis outbreaks linked to eggs at 2 gimbap restaurants in the Republic of Korea
Jun Suk Eun, Joohyun Han, Ji-Hyun Lim, Eunkyung Shin, Junyoung Kim, Da-Jung Ko, Jaeil Yoo, Sungil Kim, Jin Sook Kim, JungSub Park, Ji-Hyuk Park
Epidemiol Health. 2024;e2024036.   Published online March 7, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2024036    [Accepted]
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Salmonellosis outbreaks occurred at 2 restaurants 2 days apart, and an epidemiological investigation was conducted to determine whether the outbreaks were connected.
METHODS
Case studies were conducted for both outbreaks. Stool samples were collected from individuals, and food samples were collected from the restaurants. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and whole-genome sequencing analyses were performed on outbreak-related Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis) isolates. Traceback investigations were also conducted for the ingredients from gimbap restaurants A and B.
RESULTS
In total, 106 people from gimbap restaurant A and 5 from gimbap restaurant B met the case definition. Salmonella Enteritidis was detected in samples from 2 food handlers, 22 patients, and 1 food (iceberg lettuce) at gimbap restaurant A and from 1 patient at gimbap restaurant B. According to PFGE, all isolates were identified as SEGX01.089. The molecular typing of all isolates showed the same pattern, and the genetic distance was close according to phylogenetic analysis. Eggs were the only food ingredient that was supplied to both gimbap restaurants.
CONCLUSIONS
The outbreaks were caused by Salmonella Enteritidis, and the source of infections was suspected to be contaminated eggs. To prevent foodborne outbreaks of Salmonella, restaurants should heat eggs sufficiently, and egg farms need to establish management systems that prevent Salmonella infections.
Summary
Original articles
Association between plant-based diets and the risk of coronary heart disease predicted using the Framingham Risk Score in Korean men: data from the HEXA cohort study
Khongorzul Ganbat, Bayarmaa Nasan Ulzii, Sangah Shin
Epidemiol Health. 2024;e2024035.   Published online February 28, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2024035    [Accepted]
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Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study investigated the potential correlation between 4 plant-based diet indices and the predicted risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in Korean men using the Framingham Risk Score.
METHODS
The study included 12,356 male participants (aged ≥40 years) from the Health Examinees Study. Dietary intake was estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Four plant-based diet indices were measured, including the overall plant-based diet index, the healthy plant-based diet index (hPDI), the unhealthy plant-based diet index (uPDI), and the pro-vegetarian diet index. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the predicted 10-year risk of CHD.
RESULTS
The study found that individuals in the highest hPDI quintile had a 19% lower risk score for CHD based on the Framingham Risk Score (model 3, HR=0.801; 95% CI, 0.689–0.930, p for trend=0.0105). In stratified analyses, the highest pro-vegetarian diet index was associated with a lower risk score for CHD in physically active individuals (HR=0.740; 95% CI, 0.588–0.931; p for interaction=0.020). Conversely, the highest uPDI was associated with the highest risk score for CHD in those with a body mass index of ≥25 kg/m² and a waist circumference ≥90 cm.
CONCLUSIONS
This prospective cohort study highlights the positive role of adhering to a high hPDI diet in the prevention of CHD in Korean men. Further prospective studies are needed to determine the association between various plant-based diet indices and the risk of CHD in Asian populations with different dietary habits.
Summary
Predictive ability of the Chinese visceral adiposity index for incident hypertension in working-aged Koreans
Ju Young Jung, Chang-Mo Oh, Hyun chul Jo, Sung Keun Park
Epidemiol Health. 2024;e2024034.   Published online February 27, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2024034    [Accepted]
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Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The Chinese visceral adiposity index (CVAI) was developed to assess visceral adipose tissue in the Asian population. This study evaluated the predictive ability of the CVAI for incident hypertension in Korean adults.
METHODS
The study participants included 128,577 Koreans without hypertension. They were grouped in quartiles according to body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), visceral adipose index (VAI), and CVAI values. The Cox proportional hazard assumption was used to evaluate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for incident hypertension (adjusted HR [95% CI]) according to quartile level across a follow-up period of 6.9 years. Subgroup analyses were conducted by gender and obesity. The area under the curve was calculated to compare the predictive abilities of all indices (BMI, WC, VAI, and CVAI) for incident hypertension.
RESULTS
The CVAI was proportionally associated with the risk of hypertension in all participants (quartile 1, reference; quartile 2, 1.71 [1.59–1.82]; quartile 3, 2.41 [2.25–2.58]; and quartile 4, 3.46 [3.23–3.71]). Time dependent receiver operating characteristic curve analysis indicated that the CVAI was superior to BMI, WC, and VAI in predicting hypertension at the 2-year, 4-year, 6-year and 8-year follow-ups. This finding was also observed in the gender and obesity subgroups. The predictive ability of the CVAI was greater in the women and non-obese subgroups than in the men and obese subgroups.
CONCLUSIONS
The CVAI was a stronger predictor of hypertension than BMI, WC, and VAI.
Summary
Influence of practice location on prescribing, diabetes care, and colorectal cancer screening among Czech general practitioners during the COVID-19 pandemic
Jan Bělobrádek, Luděk Šídlo, Tom Philipp
Epidemiol Health. 2024;e2024033.   Published online February 23, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2024033    [Accepted]
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The provision of primary health care was not interrupted during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in Czechia, although the capacity and resources of providers changed. We examined how the pandemic affected individual general practices throughout 2017‒2021, focusing on differences between urban and rural practices.
METHODS
We analysed data from the largest health insurance company in Czechia, which provides care to 4.5 million people (60% of the population). We evaluated the prescription volume, diabetes care procedures, and faecal immunochemical test (FIT) in preventive care and new pandemic-related procedures (remote consultations, testing, and vaccinations). For the spatial distribution of practices, we adapted the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development typology.
RESULTS
We observed minimal declines in 2020 in the rate of prescribing (-1%) and diabetes care (-5.1%), with a rapid resumption in 2021, but a substantial decline in FIT (-17.8% in 2020) with slow resumption. Remote consultations were used by 94% of all practices regardless of location, with testing and vaccinations more commonly performed by rural general practitioners.
CONCLUSIONS
Primary care in Czechia rose to the challenge of the COVID-19 pandemic, as shown by the finding that the volume of healthcare services provided through primary care did not decrease across most of the monitored parameters. This study also confirmed that rural GPs provide more care in-house, both in terms of prescribing and procedures performed in their practices. Future studies will need to focus on preventive care, which the pandemic has dampened in GP practices in Czechia.
Summary
Brief communication
Assessing the impact and implications of the revised Act on the Aggravated Punishment of Specific Crimes in preventing child traffic injuries in school zones: an interrupted time series analysis
Hong Jin Ku, Jin-Hwan Kim, Young June Choe, Seung Ah Choe, Mark R. Zonfrillo
Epidemiol Health. 2024;e2024032.   Published online February 21, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2024032    [Accepted]
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
In 2019, a child's death in Korea led to stricter penalties for school zone traffic violations. We assessed the impact using 2017-2022 Traffic Accident Analysis System data. Adjusted analyses revealed a decline in severe injuries in school zones (11 → 8 cases per month, P=0.017). Legislation correlated with reduced risk of all child traffic injuries (RR=0.987, 95% CI, 0.977-0.997, P=0.002), indicating efficacy in curbing accidents.
Summary
Original article
Association of insomnia and daytime napping with metabolic syndrome and its components in a Korean population: an analysis of data from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study
Da-Been Lee, DAE WUI YOON, Inkyung Baik
Epidemiol Health. 2024;e2024031.   Published online February 20, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2024031    [Accepted]
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
We investigated the association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and the coexistence of insomnia and daytime napping, because limited data have been reported regarding this association.
METHODS
The study population was 8,440 participants aged 40-65 years, who were from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. Self-reported information on insomnia symptoms and nap duration was used to define exposure variables. Data on waist circumference (WC), blood pressure (BP), and fasting blood glucose (FBG), triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in blood were used to define MetS. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to obtain odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI).
RESULTS
In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the coexistence of insomnia and napping was not significantly associated with MetS. However, the insomnia and non-napping group showed higher ORs of high TG (OR=1.19; 95% CI, 1.02-1.39) and high BP (OR=1.28; 95% CI, 1.10-1.49) than the non-insomnia and non-napping group. The combination of non-insomnia and napping and that of insomnia and napping showed higher ORs of high TG (OR=1.13; 95% CI, 1.00-1.29) and high FBG (OR=1.59; 95% CI, 1.14-2.21), respectively. In analyses of insomnia symptoms, only the combination of difficulty in maintaining sleep (DMS) and non-napping showed a higher OR for MetS (OR=1.25; 95% CI, 1.03-1.52) than the non-DMS and non-napping group.
CONCLUSIONS
Individuals with insomnia, particularly those who do not take naps, were disproportionately likely to have MetS components, especially TG or BP. Information on these variables may help predict individuals’ vulnerability to specific MetS components.
Summary
Systematic review
The Effectiveness of Protein Supplementation Combined with Resistance Exercise Program Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults with Sarcopenia: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Phatcharaphon Whaikid, Noppawan Piaseu
Epidemiol Health. 2024;e2024030.   Published online February 14, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2024030    [Accepted]
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
ImprovingThe combination of protein supplementation and resistance exercise shows promise for improving and maintaining muscle mass, strength, and performance through protein supplementation combined with resistance exercise is promising in older adults with sarcopenia. The objective of the presentThis systematic review isaimed to examineevaluate the effects of protein supplementation combined with resistance exercisethis combination on muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance amongin community-dwelling older adults with sarcopenia.
METHODS
ComprehensiveWe conducted a comprehensive search across fourof 4 electronic databases,includes: PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and the Medline library, spanningMEDLINE Library. The search covered literature from January 2013 to January 2023, following and followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic ReviewReviews and Meta-AnalysisAnalyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Two independent reviewers evaluateassessed the methodological quality and individualof each study using the standard critical appraisal instrumenttool from the Johanna Briggs Institute (JBI. The meta). Meta-analysis was performed usingwith the JBI Sumari program.
RESULTS
A total of The review included 7 randomized controlled trials and 1 quasi -experimental study consisting, encompassing a total of 854 older adultsparticipants aged 60 years and above were included in this review. The duration of the studies. The study durations ranged from 10 to 24 weeks. TheAn analysis using aof standardized mean difference (SMD) revealeddifferences (SMDs) showed that protein supplementation combined with resistance exercise significantly increased muscle mass (SMD=0.95 (; 95% CI:, 0.13,-1.78),; p< 0.05),) and muscle strength (SMD=0.32 (; 95% CI: 0.08, 0.08-0.56),; p< 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS
The smallAlthough the limited number of RCTs constrains the strengthrandomized controlled trials restricts the robustness of our conclusions. Nevertheless, our findings indicate, the evidence suggests that protein supplementation combined with resistance exercise effectively enhancesis effective in enhancing muscle mass and strength amongin community-dwelling older adults with sarcopenia.
Summary
Original articles
Impact of electronic cigarette use on the increased risk of diabetes: the Korean Community Health Survey
Wonseok Jeong, Seungju Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2024;e2024029.   Published online February 13, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2024029    [Accepted]
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Only a few studies have solely investigated the health impacts of electronic cigarettes on diabetes while considering the impact of conventional cigarettes. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the effect of electronic cigarette smoking on diabetes in South Korean dual-, electronic cigarette-, conventional cigarette-, and non-smokers.
METHODS
Data were obtained from the 2021 and 2022 Korean Community Health Surveys of 460,603 Korean adults. The main independent variable was smoking behavior. Participants were categorized according to their smoking behavior, as dual smokers, electronic cigarette smokers, conventional cigarette smokers, and non-smokers. The dependent variable, the presence of diabetes, was defined by a doctor’s diagnosis. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between smoking behavior and diabetes. Subgroup analyses were also performed to investigate the associations among different socio-economic groups.
RESULTS
Conventional cigarette smokers had a higher risk of diabetes than did non-smokers (odds ratio [OR] = 1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.19–1.26). More importantly, those who only vaped electronic cigarettes were at high risk of diabetes (OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.01–1.32). Lastly, dual smokers had the highest OR for diabetes among other smoking behavior groups (OR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.22–1.58). Dual smoking was associated with the highest risk of diabetes in most subgroups.
CONCLUSIONS
This study suggests that conventional cigarette use and smoking electronic cigarettes negatively impact diabetes, and using both types leads to worse health outcomes. Therefore, cessation of all types of smoking is necessary for a healthy life.
Summary
Mediating effect of lower extremity muscle on the relationship between obesity and osteoarthritis in middle-aged and elderly women in Korea: Based on the 2009–2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Minjun Kim, Joonwoong Kim, Inhwan Lee
Epidemiol Health. 2024;e2024027.   Published online February 2, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2024027    [Accepted]
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study investigated whether the lower extremity muscle mass index (LMI) mediates the relationship between general obesity, central obesity, and knee osteoarthritis in middle-aged and elderly women in Korea.
METHODS
Data of 2,843 women aged ≥50 years were collected from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted between 2009 and 2011. General obesity and central obesity were evaluated based on body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), calculated through anthropometric measurements and body composition assessments. LMI was calculated by dividing the muscle mass in both legs—measured using the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry—by body weight. Knee osteoarthritis was defined as a Kellgren-Lawrence scale (KL) grade of ≥2 as assessed through radiographic images.
RESULTS
Knee osteoarthritis prevalence, indicated by KL grades, was significantly higher in the general obesity and central obesity groups compared to the normal group, and conversely, lower with varying LMI levels. Using mediation analysis with bootstrapping and adjusting for covariates, we found that LMI mediated the relationship between BMI and KL (β: 0.005; 95% CI: 0.000–0.010) and WC and KL grade (β: 0.002; 95% CI: 0.001–0.003), explaining 4.8% and 6.7% of the total effects of BMI and WC on KL grade, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS
The study suggested that LMI partially mediates the link between general obesity and/or central obesity and knee osteoarthritis, proposing that a higher proportion of lower limb muscle mass relative to body weight can alleviate the increased risk of knee osteoarthritis caused by obesity.
Summary

Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health