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Sarang Jeong 1 Article
Higher energy consumption in the evening is associated with increased odds of obesity and metabolic syndrome: findings from the 2016-2018 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (7th KNHANES)
Sarang Jeong, Hajoung Lee, Sukyoung Jung, Jee Young Kim, Sohyun Park
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023087.   Published online September 19, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023087
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Chrono-nutrition emphasizes meal timing in preventing obesity and metabolic disorders. This study explores the impact of temporal dietary patterns (TDPs) on obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Korean adults aged 20 years to 65 years.
METHODS
We utilized dynamic time warping method and Kernel k-means clustering to investigate diet quality and the odds ratios (ORs) of obesity and MetS with different TDPs using data from the 7th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
RESULTS
Participants were divided into three groups based on relative energy intake over 24 hours. After adjusting for age and gender, Cluster 3 (with the highest proportion of energy intake in the evening) had the lowest Healthy Eating Index scores compared to other clusters. Following adjustment for key covariates, Cluster 3 showed the highest values for body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, total cholesterol, and triglycerides. Compared to Cluster 1 (with a lower proportion of energy intake in the evening), Cluster 2 and Cluster 3 had ORs for obesity of 1.12 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97 to 1.30) and 1.19 (95% CI, 1.03 to 1.37), respectively. For MetS, the ORs were 1.26 (95% CI, 1.08 to 1.48) and 1.37 (95% CI, 1.17 to 1.61) when comparing Cluster 2 and Cluster 3 to Cluster 1.
CONCLUSIONS
This study reveals that individuals with higher energy intake in the evening have increased odds of obesity and MetS, even after adjusting for major covariates, including age and total energy intake.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 하루 중 주요 에너지 섭취 사간에 따른 인구사회학적 특징과 건강지표의 상관성을 분석하였다. 제 7기 국민건강영양조사의 20~65세의 한국 성인을 대상으로 Dynamic Time Warping 방법을 이용하여 군집을 나누어 분석한 결과, 하루 중 저녁시간에 에너지 섭취가 높은 그룹이 그렇지 않은 그룹에 비해 연령이 낮고, 흡연자, 음주자, 스트레스를 느끼는 대상자의 비율이 높았다. 또한, 저녁에 에너지 섭취 비율이 높은 그룹이 그렇지 않은 그룹에 비해 체질량지수, 허리둘레, 혈압, 총 콜레스테롤, 중성지방이 높았으며, 식생활 평가 지수가 가장 낮았다. 마지막으로 하루 섭취하는 총 에너지 양과 생활습관 변수를 보정하고도 저녁에 섭취하는 에너지가 많은 그룹은 그렇지 않은 그룹에 비해 비만 및 대사 증후군 유병이 더 높은 것으로 나타났다.
Key Message
• This study examined the relationship between sociodemographic characteristics and health indicators based on the timing of major energy intake during the day. • Using the Dynamic Time Warping method, the analysis revealed that the group with higher evening energy intake was younger and had a higher proportion of smokers, alcohol consumers, and individuals experiencing stress. • Additionally, the group with higher evening energy intake exhibited higher levels of obesity and metabolic syndrome, even after adjusting for total daily energy intake and lifestyle variables.

Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health