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Zhong Tian 1 Article
Associations of the magnesium depletion score and magnesium intake with diabetes among US adults: an analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2018
Zhong Tian, Shifang Qu, Yana Chen, Jiaxin Fang, Xingxu Song, Kai He, Kexin Jiang, Xiaoyue Sun, Jianyang Shi, Yuchun Tao, Lina Jin
Epidemiol Health. 2024;46:e2024020.   Published online January 10, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2024020
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Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The magnesium depletion score (MDS) is considered more reliable than traditional approaches for predicting magnesium deficiency in humans. We explored the associations of MDS and dietary magnesium intake with diabetes.
METHODS
We obtained data from 18,853 participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2018. Using multivariate regression and stratified analysis, we investigated the relationships of both MDS and magnesium intake with diabetes. To compute prevalence ratios (PRs), we employed modified Poisson or log-binomial regression. We characterized the non-linear association between magnesium intake and diabetes using restricted cubic spline analysis.
RESULTS
Participants with MDS ≥2 exhibited a PR of 1.26 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19 to 1.34) for diabetes. Per-standard deviation (SD) increase in dietary magnesium intake was associated with a lower prevalence of diabetes (PR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.87 to 0.96). Subgroup analyses revealed a positive association between MDS ≥2 and diabetes across all levels of dietary magnesium intake, including the lowest (PR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.18 to 1.55), middle (PR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.35), and highest tertiles (PR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.37; pinteraction<0.001). Per-SD increase in magnesium intake was associated with lower diabetes prevalence in participants with MDS <2 (PR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.87 to 0.98) and those with MDS ≥2 (PR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.84 to 0.98; pinteraction=0.030).
CONCLUSIONS
MDS is associated with diabetes, particularly among individuals with low magnesium intake. Adequate dietary magnesium intake may reduce diabetes risk, especially in those with high MDS.
Summary
Key Message
The relationship between magnesium intake and risk is currently understudied in the field of diabetes prevention. The study found that magnesium deficiency is associated with diabetes risk, especially in people with low magnesium intake. Dietary magnesium supplementation may reduce risk and provide a new strategy for diabetes prevention. This study fills this knowledge gap and is important for scientific understanding of diabetes pathogenesis and epidemiological prevention and control.

Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health