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COVID-19: Health Statistics
Changes in food and nutrient intakes in Korean adults before and during the COVID-19 pandemic: data from the 2011-2020 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Kyungwon Oh, Suyeon Park, Sihyun Park, Sungha Yun, Hongseok Choi, Eun Kyeong Jeong
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023015.   Published online February 1, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023015
  • 5,312 View
  • 243 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study was to examine the changes in dietary habits and food and nutrient intakes between before (2019) and during (2020) the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).
METHODS
A total of 54,995 participants aged ≥19 years who participated in the 2011-2020 KNHANES were included. The 10-year trend (2011-2020) and differences between 2019 and 2020 for dietary habits and food and nutrient intakes were estimated using SAS.
RESULTS
In the past 10 years (2011-2020), the dietary habits (increase in skipping meals and eating out), food intake (increase in meats and decrease in fruits and vegetables), and nutrient intake (increase in fat and decrease in sodium) in adults have changed. When comparing between 2019 and 2020, there were 4.6%p decrease in the eating out more than once a day. On the other hand, there were no significant differences in the intakes of food, energy and most of nutrients between 2019 and 2020, except for the proportion of energy intake from fat (1.0%p increase) and carbohydrate (1.0%p decrease).
CONCLUSIONS
Although a change in dietary habits from before to during the COVID-19 pandemic was observed, food and nutrient intakes have not deteriorated markedly and appear similar to the trends in the past 10 years. Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, it is necessary to monitor the effects of changes in dietary habits on health as well as food and nutrient intakes.
Summary
Korean summary
코로나19 유행 전, 후 비교 시, 외식 감소, 가정식 섭취 증가 등 식생활은 변화가 있었으나 주요 식품 및 영양소 섭취는 큰 변화없이 최근 10년간의 추이가 지속되고 있었다.
Key Message
Although a change in dietary habits from before to during the COVID-19 pandemic was observed, food and nutrient intakes have not deteriorated markedly and appear similar to the trends in the past 10 years in Korean adults.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Comparative study on the health and dietary habits of Korean male and female adults before and after the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic: utilizing data from the 8th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2019–2021)
    Chaemin Kim, Eunjung Kim
    Korean Journal of Community Nutrition.2024; 29(1): 65.     CrossRef
COVID-19: Health Statistics
Changes in the management of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia in Korean adults before and during the COVID-19 pandemic: data from the 2010-2020 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Yoonjung Kim, Suyeon Park, Kyungwon Oh, Hongseok Choi, Eun Kyeong Jeong
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023014.   Published online February 1, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023014
  • 5,330 View
  • 167 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study aimed to analyze the changes in chronic disease management indicators, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesteremia, from 2010-2020 and before (2019) and during (2020) the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.
METHODS
This study included 58,504 individuals aged ≥30 years who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2020. Trends in the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of chronic diseases and the difference in those between before and during the COVID-19 pandemic were analyzed using the SAS program PROC SURVEYREG.
RESULTS
From 2010-2020, the awareness, treatment, and control in adults aged ≥30 years for hypertension and hypercholesterolemia continuously improved, whereas no significant change in the management indicators of diabetes mellitus was observed. The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia in men increased from before to during the COVID- 19 pandemic. However, there was no significant change in the management indicators of hypertension and diabetes mellitus in men and women, and the awareness, treatment, and control rates for hypercholesterolemia increased by 5.5%p, 6.9%p, and 4.1%p respectively.
CONCLUSIONS
In 2020, the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic, the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia increased, but the management indicators of the chronic diseases did not significantly deteriorate. Considering the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, it is necessary to monitor changes in chronic disease management indicators and to develop efficient and accessible chronic disease prevention and management programs.
Summary
Korean summary
국민건강영양조사 자료를 분석한 결과 11년간(2010-2020년) 성인의 고혈압, 고콜레스테롤혈증 인지율, 치료율, 치료자 중 조절률은 개선된 반면 당뇨병은 변화가 없었다. 코로나19 유행 전(2019년)·후(2020년) 비교시 남자에서 고혈압, 당뇨병, 고콜레스테롤혈증 유병률이 증가했다. 그러나 고혈압, 당뇨병 관리지표는 변화가 없었고, 고콜레스테롤혈증 관리지표만 개선되었다.
Key Message
The rates of awareness, treatment, and control in adults aged ≥30 years for hypertension and hypercholesterolemia continuously improved, whereas no significant change in the management indicators of diabetes mellitus was observed over the past 11 years (2010-2020). The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia in men increased from before (2019) to during (2020) the COVID-19 pandemic. However, there was no significant change in the management indicators of hypertension and diabetes mellitus in men and women, and that of hypercholesterolemia improved.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Obesity, Metabolic Parameters and Clinical Values in the South Korean Adult Population
    Anna Kim, Eun-yeob Kim, Jaeyoung Kim
    Journal of Clinical Medicine.2024; 13(10): 2814.     CrossRef
  • Topic Modeling-Based Analysis of News Keywords Related to Patients with Diabetes during the COVID-19 Pandemic
    Jeong-Won Han, Jung Min Kim, Hanna Lee
    Healthcare.2023; 11(7): 957.     CrossRef
Health Statisticses
A comparison of breast cancer survival across different age groups: a multicentric database study in Penang, Malaysia
King Fang Tan, Farzaana Adam, Hasmah Hussin, Noor Mastura Mohd Mujar
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021038.   Published online May 25, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021038
  • 14,001 View
  • 380 Download
  • 13 Web of Science
  • 11 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
This study compared breast cancer survival and the prognostic factors across different age groups of women in Penang, Malaysia. Data on 2,166 women with breast cancer who had been diagnosed between 2010 and 2014 were extracted from the Penang Breast Cancer Registry and stratified into 3 age groups: young (< 40 years old), middle-aged (40-59 years old), and elderly (≥ 60 years). The overall and relative survival rates were calculated using the life table method, median survival time was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and comparisons between groups were conducted using the log-rank test. Prognostic factors were analyzed using a Cox proportional hazards model. The 5-year overall and breast cancer-specific survival rates for women with breast cancer in Penang were 72.9% and 75.2%, with a mean survival time of 92.5 months and 95.1 months, respectively. The 5-year breast cancer-specific survival rates for young, middle-aged, and elderly women were 74.9%, 77.8%, and 71.4%, respectively, with a mean survival time of 95.7 months, 97.5 months, and 91.2 months. There was a significant difference in breast cancer survival between age groups, with elderly women showing the lowest survival rate, followed by young and middle-aged women. Disease stage was the most prominent prognostic factor for all age groups. Survival rates and prognostic factors differed according to age group. Treatment planning for breast cancer patients should be age-specific to promote better cancer care and survival.
Summary
Key Message
The relationship between breast cancer survival and age at diagnosis has been explored, but information between survival at different age groups remains unclear, in addition to conflicting study results. This multicentre study was conducted to compare breast cancer survival across different age groups in an Asian setting.

Citations

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  • Illuminating the breast cancer survival rates among Southeast Asian women: A systematic review and meta-analysis spanning four decades
    Duc Tran Quang, Thanh Luong Thi, Khanh Nguyen Di, Chi Vu Thi Quynh, Huyen Nguyen Thi Hoa, Quang Phan Ngoc
    Current Problems in Cancer.2024; 48: 101062.     CrossRef
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    Han Lei, Baojie Hua, Yingying Mao, Wei Cui, Caiping Mao, Shaoxue Yang, Jiayu Li
    Frontiers in Oncology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Yu-Tung Teng, Yong Alison Wang, Yaa-Hui Dong, Jason J. Liu
    Breast Cancer Research and Treatment.2024; 205(3): 619.     CrossRef
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    Barathan Muttiah, Sook Luan Ng, Yogeswaran Lokanathan, Min Hwei Ng, Jia Xian Law
    Pharmaceutics.2024; 16(5): 654.     CrossRef
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    Tingting Cai, Tingting Zhou, Qingmei Huang, Fulei Wu, Feixia Ni, Changrong Yuan
    European Journal of Oncology Nursing.2023; 63: 102287.     CrossRef
  • myBeST—A Web-Based Survival Prognostic Tool for Women with Breast Cancer in Malaysia: Development Process and Preliminary Validation Study
    Mohd Nasrullah Nik Ab Kadir, Suhaily Mohd Hairon, Najib Majdi Yaacob, Siti Norbayah Yusof, Kamarul Imran Musa, Maya Mazuwin Yahya, Seoparjoo Azmel Mohd Isa, Muhammad Hafizuddin Mamat Azlan, Imi Sairi Ab Hadi
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2023; 20(4): 2985.     CrossRef
  • Clinical Features and Outcomes of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Among Latin American Adolescents and Young Adults Compared to Middle-Aged and Elder Females: A Cohort Analysis Over 15 Years
    Bryan Valcarcel, J. Smith Torres-Roman, Daniel Enriquez-Vera, Gabriel De-la-Cruz-Ku
    Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology.2023; 12(5): 625.     CrossRef
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    Tongchao Jiang, Haishuang Sun, Na Li, Tongcui Jiang
    Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology.2023; 149(15): 13511.     CrossRef
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    Lijun Ma, Ailan Liu, Jinnan Gao, Haoliang Zhao
    Open Life Sciences.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Jun Lu, Pinbo Liu, Ran Zhang
    Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Development of Predictive Models for Survival among Women with Breast Cancer in Malaysia
    Mohd Nasrullah Nik Ab Kadir, Najib Majdi Yaacob, Siti Norbayah Yusof, Imi Sairi Ab Hadi, Kamarul Imran Musa, Seoparjoo Azmel Mohd Isa, Balqis Bahtiar, Farzaana Adam, Maya Mazuwin Yahya, Suhaily Mohd Hairon
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(22): 15335.     CrossRef
Estimation of the reproduction number and early prediction of the COVID-19 outbreak in India using a statistical computing approach
Karthick Kanagarathinam, Kavaskar Sekar
Epidemiol Health. 2020;42:e2020028.   Published online May 9, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020028
  • 12,248 View
  • 292 Download
  • 12 Web of Science
  • 11 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which causes severe respiratory illness, has become a pandemic. The World Health Organization has declared it a public health crisis of international concern. We developed a susceptible, exposed, infected, recovered (SEIR) model for COVID-19 to show the importance of estimating the reproduction number (R<sub>0</sub>). This work is focused on predicting the COVID-19 outbreak in its early stage in India based on an estimation of R<sub>0</sub>. The developed model will help policymakers to take active measures prior to the further spread of COVID-19. Data on daily newly infected cases in India from March 2, 2020 to April 2, 2020 were to estimate R<sub>0</sub> using the earlyR package. The maximum-likelihood approach was used to analyze the distribution of R<sub>0</sub> values, and the bootstrap strategy was applied for resampling to identify the most likely R<sub>0</sub> value. We estimated the median value of R<sub>0</sub> to be 1.471 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.351 to 1.592) and predicted that the new case count may reach 39,382 (95% CI, 34,300 to 47,351) in 30 days.
Summary

Citations

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  • REDACS: Regional emergency-driven adaptive cluster sampling for effective COVID-19 management
    M. Stehlík, J. Kiseľák, A. Dinamarca, E. Alvarado, F. Plaza, F.A. Medina, S. Stehlíková, J. Marek, B. Venegas, A. Gajdoš, Y. Li, S. Katuščák, A. Bražinová, E. Zeintl, Y. Lu
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Trends in health-related behaviors of Korean adults: study based on data from the 2008 - 2014 Community Health Surveys
Yang Wha Kang, Yun Sil Ko, Keon Yeop Kim, Changhyun Sung, Dong Han Lee, Eunkyeong Jeong
Epidemiol Health. 2015;37:e2015042.   Published online September 29, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih/e2015042
  • 18,731 View
  • 206 Download
  • 5 Web of Science
  • 14 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
Unhealthy lifestyle behaviors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical inactivity (multiple risks) often lead to serious health consequence and impaired health status. The purpose of this study was to investigate the trend in health-related behavioral factors over time among adults in South Korea (hereafter Korea). The data of 1,595,842 Koreans older than 19 years who participated in the 2008-2014 Korea Community Health Survey were analyzed to assess the trend in the prevalence of behavioral risk factors. Individual or clustering health-related behaviors were assessed according to sex, age, and region among 228,712 adults who participated in the 2014 survey. From 2008 to 2014, the age-adjusted prevalence of obesity and high-risk alcohol use increased the prevalence of male current smoking and marginally decreased walking ability. Over 7 years, the percentage of adults who reported having all three healthy behaviors (i.e., currently not smoking, not consuming alcohol or having high-risk alcohol use, and engaging in walking) decreased from 35.2% in 2008 to 29.6% in 2014. Increased efforts to emphasize multiple health-related behavioral risk factors, including reducing alcohol use and smoking, and to encourage walking are needed in the thirties and forties age groups in Korea.
Summary
Korean summary
본 논문은 지역사회건강조사를 기반으로 한 우리나라 성인의 지난 7년간 주요건강행태변화와 주요 건강위험요인에 대한 결과를 보여주고 있으며, 각 지역간의 차이를 제시함으로써 지역 보건사업의 필요성을 제시하였다.

Citations

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  • Discordance in Secular Trends of Bone Mineral Density Measurements in Different Ages of Postmenopausal Women
    Kwang Yoon Kim, Jaesun Park, Sungwon Yang, Junghwa Shin, Ji Hyun Park, Bumhee Park, Bom Taeck Kim
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Variability Test of Estimates of Korea Community Health Survey Data in Gyeongsangnam-do (2008-2018)
    Youngjun Seon, Baekgeun Jeong, Boyeong Jin, Zunghun Lim, Changjin Cho, Youngeun Son, Dong Wook Kim
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  • Relationship of night sleep duration with health lifestyle, depressive symptoms, internet addiction in Chinese High school Students
    Yueyang Hu, Tingting Gao, Ruilin Cao, Hui Ren, Zeying Qin, Chuanen Li, Leilei Liang, Cuicui Meng, Xinmeng Guo, Jianping Lv, Songli Mei
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  • Physical Activity Trends in Korean Adults from Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey from 2014 to 2019
    Hoyong Sung, Geonhui Kim, Xiaonan Ma, Harim Choe, Yunmin Han, Jiyeon Yoon, Yeun Ryu, Yeon Soo Kim
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(9): 5213.     CrossRef
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    Sung Hoon Jeong, Hyeon Ji Lee, Choa Yun, Il Yun, Yun Hwa Jung, Soo Young Kim, Hee Seung Lee, Sung-In Jang
    BMC Cancer.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
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Changing trends in colorectal cancer in the Republic of Korea: contrast with Japan
Minjoo Yoon, Nicholas Kim, Byungho Nam, Jungnam Joo, Moran Ki
Epidemiol Health. 2015;37:e2015038.   Published online August 17, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih/e2015038
  • 22,779 View
  • 314 Download
  • 19 Web of Science
  • 17 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
Colorectal cancer has a high worldwide incidence. Japan, a country that is geographically and culturally similar to the Republic of Korea (here after Korea), has recently reported a decreasing trend in the incidence of colorectal cancer. However, Korea had the highest incidence of colorectal cancer among Asian countries in 2012. Our aim was to observe the changing trends in incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer in Korea and to compare them to those in Japan. Incidence data were collected from the Korean Central Cancer Registry and mortality data were collected from Korean Statistical Information Service. Incidence and mortality data on colorectal cancer in Japan were acquired from the National Cancer Center in Japan. Age-standardized incidence and mortality rates were determined based on Segi’s world population. Screening data from both countries were collected from the national cancer center in each country. In Korea, the age-standardized incidence rate of colorectal cancer in both sexes was 20.9 to 38.0 per 100,000 from 1999 to 2012 and the rate in males increased more dramatically than in females. In addition, the increase between 2002 and 2012 was first observed in the age group over 40. In Japan, the incidence of colorectal cancer has been more constant over recent years than in Korea. The age-standardized mortality rate of colorectal cancer in both sexes in Korea was 8.5 to 9.3 per 100,000 from 2000 to 2013, and the trend in mortality was constant during this period. In Japan, the mortality rate decreased slightly during the same period. Crude screening rates were increased overall in both Korea and Japan during the period studied. Since the incidence of colorectal cancer has increased in Korea, the control of this cancer is an important public health issue. As Japan has achieved a reduction in colorectal cancer, adjustment of Korea’s current systems for screening and treatment of colorectal cancer according to those of Japan may contribute to improved colorectal cancer control in Korea.
Summary
Korean summary
우리나라와 지리적, 문화적으로 가까운 일본은 대장암 발생 및 사망이 감소하고 있는 반면, 한국의 대장암 발생은 증가하는 추세이다. 본 연구는 한국의 대장암 발생 및 사망의 경향을 관찰하고, 이를 일본의 경우와 비교하고자 한다

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    Hyun-Young Shin, Ji-Youn Lee, Jee-Eun Kim, Seokmin Lee, Heejo Youn, Heyran Kim, Jeonghun Lee, Min Sim Park, Sun Huh
    Journal of the Korean Medical Association.2018; 61(9): 573.     CrossRef
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    Qi Zhang, Franklin G. Berger, Bryan Love, Carolyn E. Banister, Elizabeth A. Murphy, Lorne J. Hofseth
    Medical Hypotheses.2018; 121: 152.     CrossRef
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    Kyoung-Jin Park, Dong Kyung Chang, Hee Cheol Kim, Jong-Won Kim
    Laboratory Medicine Online.2018; 8(4): 156.     CrossRef
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    Qin Zhou, Yan Li, Hua-Zhang Liu, Ying-Ru Liang, Guo-Zhen Lin
    World Journal of Gastroenterology.2018; 24(41): 4708.     CrossRef
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    Mahshid Ghoncheh, Maryam Mohammadian, Abdollah Mohammadian-Hafshejani, Hamid Salehiniya
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    Jihye Park, Jae Hyun Kim, Hyun Jung Lee, Soo Jung Park, Sung Pil Hong, Jae Hee Cheon, Won Ho Kim, Ji Soo Park, Justin Y. Jeon, Tae Il Kim
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Changing trends in the incidence (1999-2011) and mortality (1983-2013) of cervical cancer in the Republic of Korea
Yoon Park, Champadeng Vongdala, Jeongseon Kim, Moran Ki
Epidemiol Health. 2015;37:e2015024.   Published online May 29, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih/e2015024
  • 25,045 View
  • 246 Download
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  • 14 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
Cervical cancer is a well-known preventable cancer worldwide. Many countries including Korea have pursued the positive endpoint of a reduction in mortality from cervical cancer. Our aim is to examine changing trends in cervical cancer incidence and mortality after the implementation of a national preventive effort in Korea. Cervical cancer incidence data from 1999 to 2011 and mortality data from 1983 to 2013 were collected from the Korean Statistical Information Service. Yearly age-standardized rates (ASR) per 100,000 were compared using two standards: the 2005 Korean population and the world standard population, based on Segi’s world standard for incidence and the World Health Organization for mortality. In Korea, the age-standardized incidence of cervical cancer per 100,000 persons declined from 17.2 in 2000 to 11.8 in 2011. However, the group aged 25 to 29 showed a higher rate in 2011 (ASR, 6.5) than in 2000 (ASR, 3.6). The age-standardized mortality rate per 100,000 persons dropped from 2.81 in 2000 to 1.95 in 2013. In the worldwide comparison, the incidence rates remained close to the average incidence estimate of more developed regions (ASR, 9.9). The decreasing mortality trend in Korea approached the lower rate observed in Australia (ASR, 1.4) in 2010. Although the incidence rate of cervical cancer is continuously declining in Korea, it is still high relative to other countries. Moreover, incidence and mortality rates in females aged 30 years or under have recently increased. It is necessary to develop effective policy to reduce both incidence and mortality, particularly in younger age groups.
Summary
Korean summary
한국의 자궁경부암 발생률과 사망률은 꾸준히 감소하고 있는 추세이다. 그러나 한국의 발생률은 여러 선진국에 비해 여전히 높은 수준에 머무르고 있다. 또한, 지난 10년 동안 자궁경부암 사망률은 상대적으로 큰 감소를 보이지 않았다. 특히 35세 미만에서는 자궁경부암 발생률이 감소하지 않았고, 사망률은 오히려 높아진 것으로 나타났다. 젊은 연령층의 자궁경부암 예방과 관리가 필요하다.

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  • Income-based disparities in the risk of distant-stage cervical cancer and 5-year mortality after the introduction of a National Cancer Screening Program in Korea
    Erdenetuya Bolormaa, Seung-Ah Choe, Mia Son, Myung Ki, Domyung Paek
    Epidemiology and Health.2022; 44: e2022066.     CrossRef
  • Effect of Pap smears on the long-term survival of cervical cancer patients: a nationwide population-based cohort study in Korea
    Xuan Quy Luu, Kyeongmin Lee, Jae Kwan Jun, Mina Suh, kyu-won Jung, Myong Cheol Lim, Kui Son Choi
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  • The Effects of Age, Period, and Cohort on the Mortality of Cervical Cancer in Three High-Income Countries: Canada, Korea, and Italy
    Jinyao Wang, Zhiqiang Bai, Xudong Gao, Nianping Zhang, Zhenkun Wang, Zhongjie Shi
    BioMed Research International.2021; 2021: 1.     CrossRef
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    Sarreyeh Izadi, Sareh Shakerian
    International Journal of Cancer Management.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Cam Nhung Bui, Seri Hong, Mina Suh, Jae Kwan Jun, Kyu Won Jung, Myong Cheol Lim, Kui Son Choi
    Journal of Gynecologic Oncology.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Min Kyoung Kim, Yeon Soo Jung, Seung Joo Chon, Bo Hyon Yun, SiHyun Cho, Young Sik Choi, Byung Seok Lee, Seok Kyo Seo
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Trends of liver cancer and its major risk factors in Korea
Eun-Young Lee, Tran Thi Xuan Mai, Yoonjung Chang, Moran Ki
Epidemiol Health. 2015;37:e2015016.   Published online March 11, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih/e2015016
  • 24,449 View
  • 263 Download
  • 17 Web of Science
  • 16 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
The Republic of Korea (hereafter Korea) is one of the countries with high incidence of liver cancer and there is great difference in incidence of liver cancer between male and female. We investigated the sex-specific trends of three major risk factors of liver cancer, which are hepatitis B virus(HBV) infection, hepatitis C virus(HCV) infection, and alcoholic liver cirrhosis. The incidence of liver cancer was obtained from the Cancer Registration Statistics of the National Cancer Center of Korea. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seropositivity was based on data from the 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Disease statistics from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service of Korea were used to evaluate trends in HCV infection and alcoholic liver cirrhosis. The prevalence of these risk factors were compared with the incidence of liver cancer. Males had a three to four times higher incidence of liver cancer than females did from 1999 to 2011. This gap between the incidence for males and females increased with age and males aged 50 to 59 showed a five times higher incidence than females of the same age did. In general, HBsAg seropositivity decreased from 1998 to 2011. The prevalence of HCV infections was 96.2 and 90.3 per 100,000 females and males, respectively in 2013. The prevalences of HCV infections from 2009 to 2013 did not substantially differ. The annual average prevalence of alcoholic liver cirrhosis from 2009 to 2013 was 77.22 and 8.90 per 100,000 males and females, respectively; the prevalence among males was 8.7 times higher than that among females. The prevalence rapidly increased with age in males, and males aged 60 to 69 peaked with a 19.2 times higher prevalence than that among females of the same age group. We found that the incidence of alcoholic liver cirrhosis, a major risk factor of liver cancer, exhibited a trend similar to that of liver cancer incidence in males, and this trend also differed remarkably by sex.
Summary
Korean summary
한국의 간암 발생 추세에서 나타나는 큰 남녀차이와 관련하여 간암의 주요 위험요소로 평가되는 만성 간염, 음주, 간경변과 관련한 B형간염, C형간염, 알코올성 간경변의 유병률 추세를 살펴본 결과 알코올성 간경변의 유병률 추세에서 간암발생에서와 유사한 큰 남녀차이가 발견되었다.

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Stomach cancer incidence rates among Americans, Asian Americans and Native Asians from 1988 to 2011
Yeerae Kim, Jinju Park, Byung-Ho Nam, Moran Ki
Epidemiol Health. 2015;37:e2015006.   Published online February 16, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih/e2015006
  • 29,130 View
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  • 38 Web of Science
  • 29 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
Stomach cancer is the second most common cancer in Eastern Asia, accounting for approximately 50% of all new cases of stomach cancer worldwide. Our objective was to compare the stomach cancer incidence rates of Asian Americans in Los Angeles with those of native Asians to assess the etiology of stomach cancer from 1988 to 2011. To examine these differences, Asian Americans (Korean, Japanese, Chinese, and Filipino Americans living in Los Angeles, California, USA) and native Asians (from Korea, Japan, China, and the Philippines) were selected for this study. Using the Cancer Incidence in Five Continents database, stomach cancer incidence rates were examined. Data from the National Cancer Registry of Korea were used for native Koreans. Between native countries, the incidence rates in Japan, China, the Philippines, and the US declined over time, but the incidence in Korea has remained constant. The incidences among Asian immigrants were lower than those among native Asians. The incidence rates of males were approximately 2 times higher than those among females in Asian countries were. The effect of immigration on stomach cancer incidence suggests that lifestyle factors are a significant determinant of stomach cancer risk. However, the incidence in Korea remains the highest of these countries
Summary

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Trends in cigarette smoking among adolescents and adults in South Korea
Sunhye Choi, Yoonjung Kim, Suyeon Park, Jihye Lee, Kyungwon Oh
Epidemiol Health. 2014;36:e2014023.   Published online October 28, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih/e2014023
  • 44,151 View
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  • 48 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
This report is to examine changes in the smoking prevalence among adults and adolescents and provide basic data for national health policies. Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1998 to 2013 and Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey from 2005 to 2013 were used to estimate national adults and adolescents smoking prevalence. In 2013, current cigarette smoking prevalence among male adults and female adults was 42.1% and 6.2%, decreasing by 1.6% points and 1.7% points, respectively compared to 2012. Among adolescents, current cigarette smoking prevalence was 14.4% for male and 4.6% for female students, decreasing by 1.9%points and 1.3%points, respectively compared to 2012. The highest current cigarette smoking prevalence was observed among adults of lower household income or lower education level and among middle and high school students of lower perceived household economic status or lower perceived academic records. Current cigarette smoking prevalence among male adults has decreased since 2011, whereas among female adults, there were no statistically significant annual changes. Among middle and high school students, the prevalence for male students decreased since 2011 and for female students decreased since 2006. But the smoking prevalence did not meet the Health Plan 2020 target.
Summary
Korean summary
국민건강영양조사(1998~2013)와 청소년건강행태온라인조사(2005~2013) 원시자료를 이용하여 분석한 결과, 2013년 현재흡연율은 성인의 경우 남자 42.1%, 여자 6.2%, 중고등학생은 남자 14.4%, 여자 4.6%이었다. 사회경제적요인별로는 성인의 경우 소득수준이 낮을수록, 교육수준이 낮을수록 현재흡연율이 높았고, 중고등학생은 주관적 가정의 경제적 상태가 낮을수록, 주관적 학업성적이 낮을수록 흡연율이 높았다.

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