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COVID-19: Original Article
Does having various types of fear related to COVID-19 disrupt individuals’ daily life?: Findings from a nationwide survey in Korea
Woorim Kim, Yeong Jun Ju, Soon Young Lee
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022004.   Published online January 3, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022004
  • 5,585 View
  • 459 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Unexpected changes in daily routines caused by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic may affect psychological health. This study investigated the association between various types of COVID-19-related fear and the subjective level of disturbance in daily activities experienced by individuals.
METHODS
This cross-sectional study used the Korea Community Health Survey conducted from August through November 2020. COVID-19-related fear included fear of infection, death, public criticism, family members getting infected, and economic loss. The subjective level of disruption in daily activities was measured using a 0-100 numeric rating scale developed by the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency. Multivariable linear regression was used to analyze the associations between the independent and dependent variables. A subgroup analysis was performed based on income level.
RESULTS
Participants who reported fear of infection (β=-3.37, p<0.001), death (β=-0.33, p=0.030), public criticism (β=-1.63, p<0.001), a family member getting infected (β=-1.03, p<0.001), and economic loss (β=-3.52, p<0.001) experienced more disturbances in daily activities. The magnitude of this association was most significant in the lowest-income group.
CONCLUSIONS
Individuals reporting COVID-19-related fear experienced higher levels of subjective disruption in daily activities.
Summary
Korean summary
이 연구는 COVID-19 팬데믹과 관련된 심리적염려가 일상생활 활동에 부정적인 영향을 줄 수 있음을 관찰하였다. COVID-19 감염으로 인한 감염, 사망, 대중의 비판, 가족 중 건강취약자의 감염, 경제적 손실에 대해 염려하는 사람은 그렇지 않은 사람에 비해 일상생활에 더 부정적인 영향을 받고 있는 것으로 관찰되었다. 특히 다양한 유형의 감염염려를 동시에 경험하고 있을수록 일상생활 지장 정도가 더 증가하는 경향이 관찰되었으며 소득수준이 낮을수록 부정적인 영향정도가 더 두드러졌다.
Key Message
Our results revealed that fear related to the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with increased levels of subjective disruptions in daily activities. Compared to individuals without fear, those with fears of COVID-19 infection, dying from infection, public criticism, a family member getting infected, and economic loss reported higher levels of disruption in daily activities. Those who reported fear of COVID-19 infection and economic loss due to infection had particularly higher levels of disturbances. Considering the various types of fear concurrently, the level of disruption experienced tended to increase with the number of reported fears.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Is fear of COVID-19 higher in individuals residing in more deprived areas? A nationwide study
    Woorim Kim, Soon Young Lee, Yeong Jun Ju
    Journal of Public Health.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Association Between Changes in Family Life Due to COVID-19 and Depressive Mood and Stress Perception
    Min-Su Kim, Mi Ah Han, Jong Park, So Yeon Ryu
    Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health.2022; : 101053952211393.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Age-specific effects of ozone on pneumonia in Korean children and adolescents: a nationwide time-series study
Kyoung-Nam Kim, Youn-Hee Lim, Sanghyuk Bae, In Gyu Song, Soontae Kim, Yun-Chul Hong
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022002.   Published online December 28, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022002
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The aim of this study was to estimate the age-specific effects of 8-hour maximum ozone levels on pneumonia in children and adolescents.
METHODS
We performed quasi-Poisson regression analyses for individuals of 0-4 years, 5-9 years, 10-14 years, and 15-19 years of age using nationwide time-series data from the Korea (2011-2015). We constructed distributed lag linear models employing a generalized difference-in-differences method and controlling for other air pollutants.
RESULTS
A 10.0-parts per billion increase in 8-hour maximum ozone levels was associated with a higher risk of hospital admissions due to pneumonia at 0-4 (relative risk [RR], 1.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 1.03) and 5-9 years of age (RR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.08), but not at 10-14 (RR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.98 to 1.04) or 15-19 years of age (RR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.97 to 1.06). The association between ozone and hospital admissions due to pneumonia was stronger in cool seasons (from November to April) than in warm seasons (from May to October), but was similar between boys and girls.
CONCLUSIONS
Short-term exposure to ozone was associated with a higher risk of pneumonia at 0-4 years and 5-9 years of age, but not at 10-14 years or 15-19 years of age. Our findings can help identify vulnerable periods, determine the target populations for public health interventions, and establish air pollution standards.
Summary
Korean summary
-어린이와 청소년에서 대기오염물질인 오존에 단기 노출되었을 때 폐렴으로 인한 입원 위험이 증가하는지를 건강보험공단 청구자료를 이용하여 구축한 시계열자료로 분석하였다. -0-4세, 5-9세 군에서는 오존 단기 노출 시 폐렴으로 인한 입원 위험이 증가하였으나 10-14세, 15-19세 군에서는 입원 위험 증가가 관찰되지 않았다.
Key Message
• The effects of ozone levels on hospital admissions for pneumonia were evaluated. • We used quasi-Poisson time-series models and a difference-in-differences method. • Ozone levels increased hospital admissions for pneumonia at ages 0–4 and 5–9 years. • Evidence for the effects of ozone levels on pneumonia was not found at older ages.
Effects of early medication treatment and metformin use for cancer prevention in diabetes patients: a nationwide sample cohort study in Korea using extended landmark time analysis
Hwa Jeong Seo, Hyun Sook Oh
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021103.   Published online December 17, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021103
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study investigated the effectiveness of early medication treatment and metformin use for cancer prevention in type 2 diabetes patients.
METHODS
Population-based cohort data were used from the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort database (KNHIS-NSC) for 2002-2013. Patient-specific medication prescription status was defined by the landmark time (LMT; a fixed time after cohort entry), considering both pre- and post-LMT prescriptions to control methodological biases in observational research. The LMT was set to 2 years. Logistic regression analysis with multivariable adjustment was conducted to analyze cancer incidence by patient-specific medication prescription status.
RESULTS
Only 33.4% of the subjects were prescribed medication early (before the LMT) with compliance. Cancer incidence in individuals with early prescription and compliance was 25% lower (odds ratio [OR], 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67 to 0.84) than in those without. As early-prescribed medications, metformin monotherapy and metformin combination therapy were associated with 34% (OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.51 to 0.83) and 25% (OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.88) lower cancer risk than non-use, respectively. Patients who were prescribed late (post-LMT) but did not comply with the prescription had a 24% (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 0.97 to 1.58) higher cancer incidence than non-users. Among patients who started monotherapy early without changes throughout the entire follow-up period, those who started on metformin had a 37% (OR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.41 to 0.99) lower risk of cancer than non-metformin users.
CONCLUSIONS
Doctors must prescribe antidiabetic medication early, and patient compliance is required, regardless of the prescription time, to prevent cancer. Metformin monotherapy or combination therapy is recommended as an early prescription.
Summary
Korean summary
당뇨 환자는 암 발병 위험이 높으며 암은 주요 사망 원인이다. 당뇨환자의 암발생 예방을 위한 관리로서, 당뇨병 진단 후 약물 치료 시기에 대한 연구는 부족하다. 또한, 전 세계적으로 가장 흔히 처방되는 당뇨병 치료제인 메트포민은 암 예방 효과가 있다고 알려져 왔으나 관측연구에서 발생하는 선택 편향의 문제가 제기되었고, 최근 일부 연구에서 기존의 암 예방 효과와 상충되는 결과가 나오고 있어 논쟁이 이어지고 있다. 본 연구는 선택 편향을 통제한 코호트 연구에서 조기 약물 치료와 메트포민 사용이 당뇨환자의 암 예방에 효과적임을 밝혔다. 따라서 의사들은 처음 당뇨 진단을 받은 환자에게 조기에 약물 처방을 하고, 환자들은 처방에 잘 따라야 한다. 조기 처방 약물로서 메트포민이 권장된다.
Key Message
Diabetic patients have a high risk of developing cancer, and cancer is the leading cause of death. There are few studies on the timing of medication treatment after diagnosis of diabetes. In addition, metformin, the most commonly prescribed diabetes treatment worldwide, is known to have cancer-preventive effects, but the problem of selection bias that occurs in observational studies has been raised, and some studies have recently been contradicting the existing cancer-preventing effects of metformin. This study, in a cohort study controlled for selection bias, demonstrated that early medication treatment and metformin use were effective in preventing cancer in diabetic patients.
Late eating, blood pressure control, and cardiometabolic risk factors among adults with hypertension: results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2018
Jee-Seon Shim, Hyeon Chang Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021101.   Published online November 24, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021101
  • 4,272 View
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Despite growing concerns regarding the timing of eating, little is known about the association between late eating and health. This study aimed to investigate whether late eating is associated with blood pressure (BP) control and cardiometabolic risk factors among Korean adults with hypertension.
METHODS
Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2018 were used. Adults with hypertension aged 30-79 years (n=13,361) were included in this study. Dietary intake and information on meal timing were assessed using 1-day 24-hour recall. Late eating was defined as after the median midpoint between the times of the first and the last eating episode during the recall day. Logistic and linear regression models were used to estimate the associations of late eating with BP control and cardiometabolic risk factors.
RESULTS
Among late eaters, there were more men than women. Compared to early eaters, late eaters were younger, had a higher body mass index (BMI) and unhealthier habits, and their overall dietary quality score was lower. A negative association between late eating and BP control was found in a univariate model (odds ratio [OR], 0.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94 to 1.12), but this association disappeared after adjustment for confounders (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.94 to 1.12). Late eating was independently associated with higher BMI (p=0.03) and blood triglyceride concentration (p<0.01).
CONCLUSIONS
Our results do not support a link between late eating and BP control among adults with hypertension, but suggest that late eating is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors.
Summary
Korean summary
식사시간이 건강에 미치는 영향에 대한 관심이 증가하고 있지만, 이에 대한 근거는 많지 않다. 이 연구는 국민건강영양조사 자료를 활용하여 고혈압이 있는 성인의 늦은 식사와 혈압 조절, 심장대사 위험인자의 연관성을 분석하였다. 늦은 식사와 혈압 조절의 독립적 연관성은 찾지 못했지만, 늦은 식사는 높은 체질량지수, 혈중 지질 농도와 연관성을 보여 식사 시간 조정이 고혈압 환자의 예후 개선을 위한 유용한 대책이 될 수 있으리라는 근거를 지지한다.
Key Message
This study investigated whether late eating is associated with blood pressure (BP) control and cardiometabolic risk factors among Korean adults with hypertension using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010–2018. We did not find an independent association between late eating and BP control among Korean adults with hypertension, but found that late eating was significantly associated with higher BMI and a higher blood concentration of triglycerides, independent of potential confounders. Our findings support the suggestion that a time-based dietary approach can be used as a useful strategy to improve the prognosis of adults with hypertension.
Gender differences in under-reporting hiring discrimination in Korea: a machine learning approach
Jaehong Yoon, Ji-Hwan Kim, Yeonseung Chung, Jinsu Park, Glorian Sorensen, Seung-Sup Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021099.   Published online November 17, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021099
  • 3,739 View
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study was conducted to examine gender differences in under-reporting hiring discrimination by building a prediction model for workers who responded “not applicable (NA)” to a question about hiring discrimination despite being eligible to answer.
METHODS
Using data from 3,576 wage workers in the seventh wave (2004) of the Korea Labor and Income Panel Study, we trained and tested 9 machine learning algorithms using “yes” or “no” responses regarding the lifetime experience of hiring discrimination. We then applied the best-performing model to estimate the prevalence of experiencing hiring discrimination among those who answered “NA.” Under-reporting of hiring discrimination was calculated by comparing the prevalence of hiring discrimination between the “yes” or “no” group and the “NA” group.
RESULTS
Based on the predictions from the random forest model, we found that 58.8% of the “NA” group were predicted to have experienced hiring discrimination, while 19.7% of the “yes” or “no” group reported hiring discrimination. Among the “NA” group, the predicted prevalence of hiring discrimination for men and women was 45.3% and 84.8%, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS
This study introduces a methodological strategy for epidemiologic studies to address the under-reporting of discrimination by applying machine learning algorithms.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 한국노동패널조사(7차년도)에 포함된 3576명의 임금근로자의 자료를 이용해 성별에 따른 구직 과정 경험한 차별에 대한 과소보고의 규모를 확인하고자 하였다. 질문에 “예” 또는 “아니요”라고 응답한 임금근로자 3479명 데이터를 이용하여 고용 시 차별경험을 예측하는 머신러닝 모형을 구축하였고, 이를 활용해 이미 직장에서 일하고 있는 상태임에도 “해당사항 없음”이라고 응답한 임금근로자 97명이 차별을 경험했는지 여부를 예측하였다. 분석결과, “해당사항 없음”이라고 답한남성 근로자 64명 중 29명(45.3%), 여성 근로자 33명 중 28명(84.8%)가 실제로 차별을 경험한 것으로 추정되었다.
Key Message
We examined gender differences in under-reporting hiring discrimination for wage workers who responded “not applicable(NA)” to a question about hiring discrimination despite being eligible to answer “yes” or “no.” Using data from 3,576 wage workers of the Korea Labor and Income Panel Study, we estimated the prevalence of hiring discrimination among those who answered “NA,” based on the best-performing machine learning prediction model for “yes” or “no” group. Among the “NA” group, the predicted prevalence of hiring discrimination for men and women was 45.3% and 84.8%, respectively.
Spatiotemporal trends in diabetes-related mortality by school district in the state of Michigan, United States
Nurjannah Nurjannah, Kathleen M. Baker, Duduzile Phindi Mashinini
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021098.   Published online November 9, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021098
  • 3,897 View
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  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study examined the spatiotemporal epidemiological status of diabetes-related death in relation to school district boundaries in the state of Michigan, United States.
METHODS
A retrospective observational study was conducted using death records spanning the years 2007-2014 in Michigan, with school districts as the geographic unit of analysis. Geocoding was performed for each death record. Cluster analysis used spatial autocorrelation with local Moran’s I, and spatiotemporal analysis used the Space Time Pattern Mining tool in ArcGIS Pro 2.1.
RESULTS
The study revealed spatial clusters of high-high locations of diabetes-related mortality rate by school district in Michigan from 2007 to 2014. Spatiotemporal analysis showed grids with intensifying, consecutive, sporadic, and persistent hotspots of diabetes-related death in the Lansing, Royal Oak, Flint City, Berkley, Detroit City, East Lansing, South Lake, and Holt public school districts. These school districts should be prioritized for school-based diabetes prevention programs
CONCLUSIONS
The study demonstrated the presence of various hotspots of diabetes-related deaths within the state of Michigan across the 8-year period of analysis. Understanding spatial and temporal hotspots could further improve our ability to evaluate diabetes burden across both time and space.
Summary
Korean summary
Key Message
Using existing secondary data with spatio-temporal analysis, the study identified diabetes-related death varies across space and time within the state of Michigan, USA at the school district level. This approach provided policy-relevant information to target high-risk school-district when having limited resources to prevent diabetes at schools.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Spatiotemporal analyses of the epidemiological characteristics of diabetes mellitus
    Sang Youl Rhee
    Epidemiology and Health.2021; 43: e2021102.     CrossRef
Real-world incidence of endopthalmitis after intravitreal anti-VEGF injections in Korea: findings from the Common Data Model in ophthalmology
Yongseok Mun, Seng Chan You, Da Yun Lee, Seok Kim, Yoo-Ri Chung, Kihwang Lee, Ji Hun Song, Young Gun Park, Young Hoon Park, Young-Jung Roh, Se Joon Woo, Kyu Hyung Park, Rae Woong Park, Sooyoung Yoo, Dong-Jin Chang, Sang Jun Park
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021097.   Published online November 9, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021097
  • 4,165 View
  • 194 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The aim of this study was to evaluate the real-world incidence of endophthalmitis after intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections using data from the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership (OMOP) Common Data Model (CDM).
METHODS
Patients with endophthalmitis that developed within 6 weeks after intravitreal anti-VEGF injections were identified in 3 large OMOP CDM databases.
RESULTS
We identified 23,490 patients who received 128,123 intravitreal anti-VEGF injections. The incidence rates of endophthalmitis were 15.75 per 10,000 patients and 2.97 per 10,000 injections. The incidence rates of endophthalmitis for bevacizumab, ranibizumab, and aflibercept (per 10,000 injections) were 3.64, 1.39, and 0.76, respectively. The annual incidence has remained below 5.00 per 10,000 injections since 2011 despite the increasing number of intravitreal anti-VEGF injections. Bevacizumab presented a higher incidence rate for endophthalmitis than ranibizumab and aflibercept (incidence rate ratio, 3.17; p=0.021).
CONCLUSIONS
The incidence of endophthalmitis after intravitreal anti-VEGF injections has stabilized since 2011 despite the explosive increase in anti-VEGF injections. The off-label use of bevacizumab accounted for its disproportionately high incidence of endophthalmitis. The OMOP CDM, which includes off-label uses, laboratory data, and a scalable standardized database, could provide a novel strategy to reveal real-world evidence, especially in ophthalmology.
Summary
Korean summary
- 공통데이터모델 (Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership Common Data Model, OMOP CDM)을 통해 유리체강내 항혈관내피성장인자 주입술 후 발생한 안내염의 실세계 발생률 (Real-world incidence)은 1만명 당 15.75명, 주사 1만회 당 2.97회였음을 알 수 있었다. - 베바시주맙에서 다른 항혈관내피성장인자에 비해 유리체강내 주사 후 안내염 발생 비율이 높았으며, 이는 약제의 분주로 인한 오염과 관련이 있을 것이다. - 공통데이터모델은 건강보험 청구자료가 포함하지 않는 유리체강내 베바시주맙 사용과 같은 오프라벨 의약품 사용 자료까지 포함하기 때문에, 유리체강내 항혈관내피성장인자 주입 후 발생한 안내염의 인구기반 발생률 추정을 가능케 했다.
Key Message
- The real-world incidence of endophthalmitis after intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections was 15.75 per 10,000 patients and 2.97 per 10,000 injections based on data from the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership (OMOP) Common Data Model (CDM). - Patients treated with bevacizumab showed a significantly higher incidence rate of post-injection endophthalmitis, which might have resulted from contamination related to the division of bevacizumab. - OMOP CDM provides insights into the population-based incidence rate of endophthalmitis since it covers off-label prescriptions including intravitreal bevacizumab, which the national claims database does not cover.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Real-world treatment intensities and pathways of macular edema following retinal vein occlusion in Korea from Common Data Model in ophthalmology
    Yongseok Mun, ChulHyoung Park, Da Yun Lee, Tong Min Kim, Ki Won Jin, Seok Kim, Yoo-Ri Chung, Kihwang Lee, Ji Hun Song, Young-Jung Roh, Donghyun Jee, Jin-Woo Kwon, Se Joon Woo, Kyu Hyung Park, Rae Woong Park, Sooyoung Yoo, Dong-Jin Chang, Sang Jun Park
    Scientific Reports.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Blueprint for harmonising unstandardised disease registries to allow federated data analysis: prepare for the future
    Johannes A. Kroes, Aruna T. Bansal, Emmanuelle Berret, Nils Christian, Andreas Kremer, Anna Alloni, Matteo Gabetta, Chris Marshall, Scott Wagers, Ratko Djukanovic, Celeste Porsbjerg, Dominique Hamerlijnck, Olivia Fulton, Anneke ten Brinke, Elisabeth H. Be
    ERJ Open Research.2022; 8(4): 00168-2022.     CrossRef
Joint association of aerobic physical activity and muscle-strengthening activities with metabolic syndrome : the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2014-2015
Jungjun Lim, Soyoung Park, Joon-Sik Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021096.   Published online November 6, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021096
  • 4,290 View
  • 123 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The study aimed to examine whether simultaneously meeting the combined guidelines of accelerometer-assessed moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and self-reported muscle-strengthening activity (MSA) was associated with lower odds of metabolic syndrome (MetS) than meeting neither or 1 of the guidelines among the Koreans.
METHODS
This cross-sectional analysis included 1,355 participants from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2014-2015). Logistic regression was used to analyze the associations across groups of MVPA-MSA guideline adherence (meeting neither [reference]; meeting MVPA only; meeting MSA only; meeting both MVPS and MSA) with MetS components (abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], hypertension, and hyperglycemia). The odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for covariates (e.g., sex, age, body mass index, and accelerometer wearing time).
RESULTS
MSA only significantly reduced the OR for abdominal obesity (OR, 0.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.13 to 0.91). Meeting both MVPA and MSA reduced the OR for hypertriglyceridemia (OR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.39 to 0.88) and low HDL-C (OR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.68). Compared to meeting neither, MVPA only (OR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.44 to 0.89) and both MVPA and MSA (OR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.28 to 0.76) significantly reduced the OR for MetS.
CONCLUSIONS
Combined MVPA-MSA was more beneficially associated with MetS prevalence than MVPA only and MSA only. Considering that more than 85% of Korean adults do not meet both the MVPA and MSA guidelines, public health actions to promote adherence should be supported.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 2014-2015 국민건강영양조사 자료의 가속도계 자료와 신체활동 설문지를 활용하여 한국 성인의 유산소 신체활동과 근력강화운동 지침 충족 여부에 따른 대사증후군의 오즈비를 확인하였다. 그 결과, 유산소 신체활동과 근력강화운동 지침을 모두 충족한 한국 성인은 둘 중 하나의 지침만을 충족하거나, 모두 충족하지 않는 성인에 비해 더 낮은 오즈비를 나타내었다.
Key Message
In this study, the 2014-2015 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, the odds ratio of metabolic syndrome was confirmed according to the guidelines for aerobic physical activities and muscle-strengthening activities were met in Korean adults. As a result, Korean adults who met both the guidelines for aerobic physical activity and muscle-strengthening activities showed a lower odds ratio than adults who met only one of the guidelines or did not meet both guidelines.

Citations

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  • Association of Aerobic and Muscle-strengthening Activities with AIP in Korean Adults: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2014-2019
    Jungjun Lim, Yang Hei, Yeonsoo Kim
    Journal of Korean Association of Physical Education and Sport for Girls and Women.2022; 36(3): 245.     CrossRef
  • Current status of health promotion in Korea
    Soo Young Kim
    Journal of the Korean Medical Association.2022; 65(12): 776.     CrossRef
Misconceptions and stigma against people living with HIV/AIDS: a cross-sectional study from the 2017 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey
Desi Suantari
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021094.   Published online November 6, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021094
  • 3,854 View
  • 93 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Data are not available in Indonesia to measure the main indicators of zero new infections, zero acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related deaths and zero discrimination. This study aimed to determine factors related to misconceptions about human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission and the stigma against people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Indonesia
METHODS
This cross-sectional study used secondary data from the 2017 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS). The sample was women and men aged 17-45 years and married (n=3,023).
RESULTS
Education and wealth index quintile were significantly related to misconceptions about HIV transmission. Respondents with low levels of education were more likely to have misconceptions about HIV transmission. Respondents who were in the poorest, poorer, middle, and richer quintiles of the wealth index were more likely to have misconceptions about HIV transmission than those in the richest quintile. Educational level, employment status, and wealth index quintile were predictors of stigma against PLWHA.
CONCLUSIONS
There are still many Indonesian people with misconceptions about HIV transmission and stigma against PLWHA. Future studies should focus on educational programs or interventions aimed at increasing public knowledge and awareness, promoting compassion towards PLWHA, and emphasizing respect for the rights of PLWHA. These interventions are particularly important for populations who are uneducated and living in poverty.
Summary
Korean summary
Key Message
Many Indonesians still experience misconceptions about HIV transmission and stigmatize PLWHA. Educational programs or interventions are needed to increase public knowledge and awareness, promoting compassion towards PLWHA, and emphasizing respect for the rights of PLWHA, particularly among the poor and uneducated.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Stigmatizing and discriminatory attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) among general adult population: the results from the 6th Thai National Health Examination Survey (NHES VI)
    Sineenart Chautrakarn, Parichat Ong-Artborirak, Warangkana Naksen, Aksara Thongprachum, Jukkrit Wungrath, Suwat Chariyalertsak, Scott Stonington, Surasak Taneepanichskul, Sawitri Assanangkornchai, Pattapong Kessomboon, Nareemarn Neelapaichit, Wichai Aekpl
    Journal of Global Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Factor Associated with HIV/AIDS knowledge among males: Findings from 2017-18 Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey
    Jamal Abdul Nasir, Muhammad Danish Khan, Syed Arif Ahmed Zaidi
    Journal of Biosocial Science.2023; : 1.     CrossRef
Effect of chemotherapy and radiotherapy on cognitive impairment in colorectal cancer: evidence from Korean National Health Insurance Database Cohort
Kwanghyun Kim, Chang Woo Kim, Aesun Shin, Hyunseok Kang, Sun Jae Jung
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021093.   Published online November 2, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021093
  • 4,030 View
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  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
We investigated the risk of chemotherapy-related and radiotherapy-related cognitive impairment in colorectal cancer patients.
METHODS
Medical use data of colorectal cancer patients were obtained from the Korean National Health Insurance Database from 2004 to 2018. We randomly selected 40% of all colorectal cancer patients (n=148,848). Cognitive impairment was defined as having 1 or more International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision diagnostic codes for dementia or mild cognitive impairment. Patients aged 18 years or younger, patients diagnosed with cognitive impairment before colorectal cancer diagnosis (n=8,225), and patients who did not receive primary resection (n=45,320) were excluded. The effects of individual chemotherapy regimens on cognitive impairment were estimated. We additionally estimated the effect of radiotherapy in rectal cancer patients. Time-dependent competing risk Cox regression was conducted to estimate the overall and age-specific hazard ratios (HR) separately for colon and rectal cancer. Landmark analyses with different lag times were conducted as sensitivity analyses.
RESULTS
Chemotherapy did not increase the risk of cognitive impairment in colorectal cancer patients (colon cancer: HR, 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83 to 1.03; rectal cancer: HR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.04), while radiotherapy was negatively associated with cognitive impairment in rectal cancer patients (HR, 0.01; 95% CI, 0.84 to 0.99). Varying directions of the associations between regimens and cognitive impairment were detected. The adverse effect of certain chemotherapy regimens on cognition was more prominent in older adults.
CONCLUSIONS
Chemotherapy and radiotherapy did not increase the risk of cognitive impairment. Older patients with low cognitive reserve could be affected by the adverse cognitive effects of chemotherapy.
Summary
Korean summary
- 대장암 환자를 대상으로 한 항암화학요법 및 방사선요법은 인지기능저하의 위험을 높이지 않았다 - 일부 항암화학요법의 경우 고령의 대장암 환자에서 인지기능저하의 위험을 증가시킬 수 있다
Key Message
Results from nationwide cohort of Korea showed that chemotherapy and radiotherapy did not increase the risk of cognitive impairment in colorectal cancer patients.

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  • Chemotherapy-induced functional brain abnormality in colorectal cancer patients: a resting‐state functional magnetic resonance imaging study
    Siwen Liu, Yesong Guo, Jie Ni, Na Yin, Chenchen Li, Xuan Pan, Rong Ma, Jianzhong Wu, Shengwei Li, Xiaoyou Li
    Frontiers in Oncology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Association between multimorbidity status and incident dementia: a prospective cohort study of 245,483 participants
    He-Ying Hu, Ya-Ru Zhang, Qiaolifan Aerqin, Ya-Nan Ou, Zuo-Teng Wang, Wei Cheng, Jian-Feng Feng, Lan Tan, Jin-Tai Yu
    Translational Psychiatry.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Association between early antenatal care and antenatal care contacts across low-and middle-income countries: effect modification by place of residence
Paschal Awingura Apanga, Maxwell Tii Kumbeni
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021092.   Published online November 2, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021092
  • 3,658 View
  • 96 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The relationship between receiving early antenatal care (ANC) and 8 or more antenatal contacts (ANC8+) has not been well characterised across low-and middle-income countries (LMICs). It is also unclear whether the association between early ANC and ANC8+ is modified by a woman’s place of residence. Our primary aim was to assess the relationship between early ANC and ANC8+ and to investigate whether this relationship was modified by place of residence. We also estimated the coverage of ANC8+ across LMICs.
METHODS
We analysed data on 207,388 mothers with a recent live birth using multiple indicator cluster surveys conducted between 2017 and 2020 in 30 LMICS. Modified Poisson regression with robust variance was used to evaluate the relationship between early ANC and ANC8+, whilst adjusting for country, clustering, stratification, and sampling weights. Effect modification by place of residence was assessed on additive and multiplicative scales. A meta-analysis was conducted to pool prevalence estimates of ANC8+ across all countries.
RESULTS
The overall prevalence of ANC8+ was 35.6%, ranging from 1.7% in Madagascar to 99.4% in Belarus. Early ANC was positively associated with ANC8+ (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR], 2.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.82 to 3.74). There was evidence of positive effect modification on additive (relative excess risk due to interaction, 0.39; 95% CI, 0.35 to 0.44) and multiplicative (aPR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.08 to 2.95) scales.
CONCLUSIONS
Many LMICs may not have adopted the 2016 World Health Organization guidelines on ANC8+. Receiving early ANC was associated with a higher likelihood of ANC8+, particularly for women in rural areas.
Summary
Korean summary
Key Message
Our findings suggest that early antenatal care (ANC) was associated with the likelihood of receiving eight or more ANC contacts (ANC8+) among all mothers across low-and middle-income countries. This association was modified by a woman’s place of residence such that mothers living in rural areas who received early ANC had a higher prevalence of ANC8+. Public health programs, which focus on increasing the coverage of ANC8+ should encourage all pregnant women to receive early ANC, particularly those living rural areas.

Citations

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  • The moderating role of partners’ education on early antenatal care in northern Ghana
    Paschal Awingura Apanga, Maxwell Tii Kumbeni, James Kotuah Sakeah, Ayokunle A. Olagoke, Olufemi Ajumobi
    BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
A comprehensive study of deaths due to exposure to humidifier disinfectant in Korea: focusing on medical records, assessment of exposure to humidifier disinfectants, and causes of death
Yeong Jun Ju, Seungho Lee, Seungsoo Sheen, Dong-Woo Choi, Jong-Han Leem, Soon Young Lee
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021091.   Published online November 1, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021091
  • 5,428 View
  • 256 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
We aimed to determine the characteristics of the deceased victims of deaths caused by exposure to humidifier disinfectants, and present the distribution of the victims’ data submitted for damage application, demographic characteristics, imaging findings, characteristics of humidifier disinfectant exposure, and distribution of the causes of death.
METHODS
An integrated database of victims was established using the medical records data of 1,413 victims submitted during the application for death damage caused by exposure to humidifier disinfectants, and the demographic characteristics, medical records, imaging findings, exposure characteristics, and cause of death were examined.
RESULTS
The average numbers of data submissions of each applicant for death damage were 3.0 medical use records. A total of 608 (43.0%) victims had more than one finding of acute, subacute, or chronic interstitial lung diseases. The average daily and cumulative use times of the victims were 14.40 and 24,645.81 hours, respectively, indicating greater exposure in this group than in the survivors. The humidifier disinfectants’ components comprised polyhexamethylene guanidine (72.8%), chloromethylisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (10.5%), other components (15.0%), and oligo-[2-(2-ethoxy)-ethoxyethyl] guanidine chloride (1.5%). The components’ distribution was 67.8% for single-component use, which was higher than that in the survivors (59.8%). The distribution of the causes of death were: respiratory diseases (54.4%), neoplasms (16.8%), and circulatory diseases (6.3%). Other interstitial lung diseases (65.5%) were the most common cause of death among those who died due to respiratory diseases.
CONCLUSIONS
Careful discussions of appropriate remedies should be conducted based on a comprehensive understanding of the characteristics of the deceased victims, considering their specificities and limitations.
Summary
Korean summary
가습기 살균제 사망 피해 신청자 들 중 건강피해를 인정받지 못한 신청자들이 여전히 많이 남아있으며 (약 40%), 피해판정의 복잡성과 다양한 이슈들이 산적해 있어 사망 피해 신청자들의 적정 구제를 위해 종합적인 특성파악을 바탕으로 세심한 관점에서의 검토가 필요하다. 특히, 가습기 살균제 사망 피해 신청자의 특수성과 피해구제의 제한점을 고려하여야 하며, 기계적인 건강피해 판정을 지양하고 사망 피해 신청자 중심의 세밀한 특성 파악을 바탕으로 다양한 전문가집단이 참여하는 종합적인 논의를 통해 적정구제를 이루어 나가야 함을 제안한다.
Key Message
Careful discussions of appropriate remedies should be conducted based on a comprehensive understanding of the characteristics of the deceased victims, considering their specificities and limitations.

Citations

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  • Health Effects Associated With Humidifier Disinfectant Use: A Systematic Review for Exploration
    Ji-Hun Song, Joonho Ahn, Min Young Park, Jaeyoung Park, Yu Min Lee, Jun-Pyo Myong, Jung-Wan Koo, Jongin Lee
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Gene expression related to lung cancer altered by PHMG-p treatment in PBTE cells
    Yoon Hee Park, Sang Hoon Jeong, Hyejin Lee, Cherry Kim, Yoon Jeong Nam, Ja Young Kang, Jin Young Choi, Yu-Seon Lee, Su A. Park, Jaeyoung Kim, Eun-Kee Park, Yong-Wook Baek, Hong Lee, Ju-Han Lee
    Molecular & Cellular Toxicology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
The BRAIN-Q, a tool for assessing self-reported sport-related concussions for epidemiological studies
Laura James, Madeline Davies, Saba Mian, Giulia Seghezzo, Elizabeth Williamson, Simon Kemp, Nigel Arden, Damien McElvenny, Neil Pearce, Valentina Gallo
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021086.   Published online October 19, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021086
  • 3,846 View
  • 111 Download
  • 1 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The BRAIN-Q is a tool aimed at maximising the accuracy and minimising measurement error for retrospectively assessing concussions. This paper reports the agreement of the BRAIN-Q tool when compared to extant questionnaire questions, and its reproducibility when compared with its telephonic version (tBRAIN-Q).
METHODS
The BRAIN-Q entails a 3-stage process: defining a concussion, creating a visual timeline with life events, and establishing detailed characteristics for each reported concussion. It was designed to be administered in-person by trained personnel, and was used in the BRAIN study. Its performance was compared with the MSK study, which previously collected a few questions in a broader self-administered questionnaire, and with the tBRAIN-Q Recall, its telephonic version.
RESULTS
In total, 101 participants were included, of whom 9 were re-assessed with the tBRAIN-Q. The agreement of the BRAIN-Q with the muscle skeletal-questionnaire for rugby-related concussion was 86.7% (κ=0.6). Rugby-related concussion with loss of consciousness showed lower agreement (82.0%; κ=0.6). The comparison between the BRAIN-Q and the tBRAIN-Q showed good reproducibility.
CONCLUSIONS
The BRAIN-Q is a relatively easy tool to administer in face-to-face assessments, and it showed optimal reproducibility. It includes a well-established definition of concussion, and is used to collect detailed information on each concussion, allowing for a number of subgroup analyses (e.g., by severity, age, or context). The BRAIN-Q is easily adaptable to other sporting settings.
Summary
Korean summary
Key Message
The BRAIN-Q is a new tool for assessing self-reported sport-related concussion in epidemiological studies. It is relatively easy to administer, it showed optimal reproducibility, and can be used by phone.

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  • Concussion and long‐term cognitive function among rugby players—The BRAIN Study
    Valentina Gallo, Damien M. McElvenny, Giulia Seghezzo, Simon Kemp, Elizabeth Williamson, Kirsty Lu, Saba Mian, Laura James, Catherine Hobbs, Donna Davoren, Nigel Arden, Madeline Davies, Andrea Malaspina, Michael Loosemore, Keith Stokes, Matthew Cross, Seb
    Alzheimer's & Dementia.2022; 18(6): 1164.     CrossRef
The effects of information-seeking behaviours on prevention behaviours during the COVID-19 pandemic: the mediating effects of anxiety and fear in Korea
Kwanghyun Kim, Jisu Yang, Ye Jin Jeon, Yu Jin Lee, Youngrong Lee, Hyeon Chang Kim, Karestan Koenen, Yong-Chan Kim, Sun Jae Jung
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021085.   Published online October 19, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021085
  • 5,146 View
  • 166 Download
  • 3 Citations
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Identifying determinants of prevention behaviours during the emergence of a new infectious disease is important. We investigated the associations between information-seeking and prevention behaviours during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and mediating effects of psychiatric factors.
METHODS
In total, 1,970 participants from the Cardiovascular and Metabolic Etiology Research Center cohort participated in an online survey 55 days after the first COVID-19 case in Korea was diagnosed. Time spent seeking information related to COVID-19; information sources; psychiatric factors, including anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), and the fear of COVID-19; and prevention behaviours were examined. The mediating effect of psychiatric factors was estimated using mediation analysis.
RESULTS
Time spent seeking information and information sources affected several behavioural responses. In men, anxiety mediated associations between information-seeking and prevention behaviours, including purchasing sanitary supplies (effect size [ES], 0.038; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.002 to 0.095) and hoarding (ES, 0.029; 95% CI, 0.002 to 0.068). The fear of COVID-19 also mediated associations between information-seeking and prevention behaviours including refraining from going out (men: ES, 0.034; 95% CI, 0.009 to 0.068; women: ES, 0.052; 95% CI, 0.030 to 0.080), wearing face masks (men: ES, 0.085; 95% CI, 0.031 to 0.184), avoiding public transportation (men: ES, 0.020; 95% CI, 0.000 to 0.044; women: ES, 0.031; 95% CI, 0.015 to 0.051), hoarding (women: ES, 0.051; 95% CI, 0.029 to 0.792), and trying alternative remedies (men: ES, 0.024; 95% CI, 0.004 to 0.053). Depressive symptoms and PTSS did not have any mediating effects.
CONCLUSIONS
While the availability of information related to COVID-19 can help prevent infections, it can also promote anxiety and fear, leading to negative behaviours such as hoarding and trying unverified alternative treatments.
Summary
Korean summary
-본 연구는 한국인에서 코로나-19 관련 정보탐색이 예방 행동과 상관관계가 있는지를 확인하고 불안, 공포, 우울을 비롯한 심리 상태가 이 상관관계를 매개하는 메커니즘으로 작용하는지를 확인하고자 하였다. - 본 코호트 연구에서 정보 탐색 시간이 길어질수록 예방 행동을 취하는 빈도가 증가하였으며 불안 및 코로나-19에 대한 공포가 이 둘 사이의 상관관계를 일부 매개하였다. - 정보탐색이 증가할수록 외출 자제, 마스크 착용, 대중교통 이용 자제와 같은 권장되는 예방 행동을 취할 가능성도 증가하였지만 사재기를 하거나 검증되지 않은 대체요법에 의지하는 등 권장되지 않는 예방 행동을 취할 가능성 또한 같이 증가하였다.
Key Message
In this study, we tried to test the association between information-seeking behavior and preventive measures during COVID-19 pandemic. We also tried to understand whether psychologic factors such as anxiety, fear against COVID-19 and depression mediate the association. We found that time used for searching COVID-19-related information is positively associated with preventive behaviors, and that anxiety and fear mediate the association. Information seeking increased the probability of utilizing recommended prevention strategy such as wearing facial masks and refraining from going out, but also promoted prevention behavior not recommended by government officials such as hoarding and trying alternative remedies.

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  • Assessing Knowledge, Preventive Practices, and Depression Among Chinese International Students and Local Korean Students in South Korea During the COVID-19 Pandemic: An Online Cross-Sectional Study
    Xiaoxu Jiang, Bo Zhao, Eun Woo Nam, Fanlei Kong
    Frontiers in Psychiatry.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Association between fear of COVID-19 and hoarding behavior during the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic: The mediating role of mental health status
    Ye Zhao, Yang Yu, Ruofan Zhao, Yiming Cai, Shuai Gao, Ye Liu, Sheng Wang, Huifeng Zhang, Haiying Chen, Youdong Li, Haishui Shi
    Frontiers in Psychology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Fear of COVID-19 and Prevention Behaviors: Cross-Lagged Panel Analysis
    Katherine M Anderson, Jamila K Stockman
    JMIR Formative Research.2022; 6(11): e35730.     CrossRef
Prevalence and factors associated with non-use of health services in the Peruvian population with COVID-19 symptomatology: a secondary analysis of the 2020 National Household Survey
Akram Hernández-Vásquez, Fabriccio J. Visconti-Lopez, Diego Azañedo
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021084.   Published online October 18, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021084
  • 4,358 View
  • 126 Download
  • 2 Citations
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of non-use of health services (NUHS) and its associated factors in Peruvians with symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).
METHODS
A secondary analysis of the 2020 National Household Survey (ENAHO) was carried out. Participants over 18 years of age with any COVID-19 symptom (fever, cough, sensation of shortness of breath) in the last 4 weeks who did not visit health services were defined as exhibiting NUHS. Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPRs) were estimated to determine the factors associated with NUHS.
RESULTS
Data from 1,856 participants were analyzed; the prevalence of NUHS was 52.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 48.0 to 56.5). Living in urban areas of the jungle (aPR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.32 to 1.98; p<0.001) and rural areas of the jungle (aPR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.15 to 1.90; p=0.002) was associated with a higher probability of NUHS than living in urban coastal areas. The factors associated with a lower probability of NUHS were being 50-59 years old (aPR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.90) and 60 years and over (aPR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.59 to 0.95), having a secondary educational level (aPR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.48 to 0.93) or superior educational level (aPR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.48 to 0.96), and having health insurance (aPR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.68 to 0.92).
CONCLUSIONS
More than half of the participants with COVID-19 symptoms did not use health services, and NUHS was associated with the geographic and socio-demographic characteristics of the population. The formulation of health strategies and programs is required to increase the use of health services by people with COVID-19 symptoms.
Summary
Korean summary
Key Message
The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of non-use of health services (NUHS) and its associated factors in Peruvians with symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in 2020. In the study, more than half of the participants with COVID-19 symptoms did not use health services, and NUHS was associated with the geographic and socio-demographic characteristics of the population. The formulation of health strategies and programs is required to increase the use of health services by people with COVID-19 symptoms, in the country with the highest mortality rate by this disease.

Citations

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  • Chronic disease relapses: A cross-sectional study of the associated factors and socioeconomic inequalities during the COVID-19 pandemic in Peru
    Fabriccio J. Visconti-Lopez, Akram Hernández-Vásquez, Dustin M. Solorzano-Salazar, Diego Azañedo, Ramune Jacobsen
    PLOS ONE.2022; 17(9): e0274697.     CrossRef
  • COVID-19 and drivers of excess death rate in Peru: A longitudinal ecological study
    Kim N. Cajachagua-Torres, Hugo G. Quezada-Pinedo, Carlos A. Huayanay-Espinoza, Jordan A. Obeso-Manrique, Víctor A. Peña-Rodríguez, Elisa Vidal, Luis Huicho
    Heliyon.2022; 8(12): e11948.     CrossRef

Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health