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Most-read articles are from the articles published in 2022 during the last three month.

Original Article
The association between migraine and Parkinson’s disease: a nationwide cohort study in Korea
Woo-Seok Ha, Jaeho Kim, Hee Won Hwang, Sue Hyun Lee, Ji In Kim, Jin Yong Hong, Sang Hyun Park, Kyung Do Han, Min Seok Baek
Epidemiol Health. 2024;46:e2024010.   Published online December 18, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2024010
  • 65,535 View
  • 182 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Clinical studies have suggested an association between migraine and the occurrence of Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, it is unknown whether migraine affects PD risk. We aimed to investigate the incidence of PD in patients with migraine and to determine the risk factors affecting the association between migraine and PD incidence.
METHODS
Using the Korean National Health Insurance System database (2002-2019), we enrolled all Koreans aged ≥40 years who participated in the national health screening program in 2009. International Classification of Diseases (10th revision) diagnostic codes and Rare Incurable Diseases System diagnostic codes were used to define patients with migraine (within 12 months of enrollment) and newly diagnosed PD.
RESULTS
We included 214,193 patients with migraine and 5,879,711 individuals without migraine. During 9.1 years of follow-up (55,435,626 person-years), 1,973 (0.92%) and 30,664 (0.52%) individuals with and without migraine, respectively, were newly diagnosed with PD. Following covariate adjustment, patients with migraine showed a 1.35-fold higher PD risk than individuals without migraine. The incidence of PD was not significantly different between patients with migraine with aura and those without aura. In males with migraine, underlying dyslipidemia increased the risk of PD (p=0.012). In contrast, among females with migraine, younger age (<65 years) increased the risk of PD (p=0.038).
CONCLUSIONS
Patients with migraine were more likely to develop PD than individuals without migraine. Preventive management of underlying comorbidities and chronic migraine may affect the incidence of PD in these patients. Future prospective randomized clinical trials are warranted to clarify this association.
Summary
Korean summary
편두통 환자들은 편두통이 없는 이들보다 장기적으로 파킨슨병이 발병할 위험이 더 높습니다. 더불어, 이 관계는 편두통의 아형(전조 vs. 무전조)보다는 편두통의 빈도(삽화성 vs. 만성)와 더 밀접한 연관성을 갖는 것으로 보입니다.
Key Message
Patients with migraine are more likely to develop Parkinson’s disease than individuals without migraine. Furthermore, this association appears to be more strongly linked to the frequency of migraines (episodic vs. chronic) rather than the subtype of migraine (with aura vs. without aura).
Special Article
Incidence and case fatality of stroke in Korea, 2011-2020
Jenny Moon, Yeeun Seo, Hyeok-Hee Lee, Hokyou Lee, Fumie Kaneko, Sojung Shin, Eunji Kim, Kyu Sun Yum, Young Dae Kim, Jang-Hyun Baek, Hyeon Chang Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2024;46:e2024003.   Published online December 26, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2024003
  • 4,076 View
  • 104 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Stroke remains the second leading cause of death in Korea. This study was designed to estimate the crude, age-adjusted and age-specific incidence rates, as well as the case fatality rate of stroke, in Korea from 2011 to 2020.
METHODS
We utilized data from the National Health Insurance Services from January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2020, to calculate incidence rates and 30-day and 1-year case fatality rates of stroke. Additionally, we determined sex and age-specific incidence rates and computed age-standardized incidence rates by direct standardization to the 2005 population.
RESULTS
The crude incidence rate of stroke hovered around 200 (per 100,000 person-years) from 2011 to 2015, then surged to 218.4 in 2019, before marginally declining to 208.0 in 2020. Conversely, the age-standardized incidence rate consistently decreased by 25% between 2011 and 2020. When stratified by sex, the crude incidence rate increased between 2011 and 2019 for both sexes, followed by a decrease in 2020. Age-standardized incidence rates displayed a downward trend throughout the study period for both sexes. Across all age groups, the 30-day and 1-year case fatality rates of stroke consistently decreased from 2011 to 2019, only to increase in 2020.
CONCLUSIONS
Despite a decrease in the age-standardized incidence rate, the total number of stroke events in Korea continues to rise due to the rapidly aging population. Moreover, 2020 witnessed a decrease in incidence but an increase in case fatality rates.
Summary
Original Article
Folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine status in the Korean population: data from the 2013-2015 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Sihan Song, Bo Mi Song, Hyun-Young Park
Epidemiol Health. 2024;46:e2024007.   Published online December 11, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2024007
  • 4,171 View
  • 166 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
We aimed to assess the serum folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine status in Korean adolescents and adults using national data.
METHODS
Blood samples were collected from participants aged ≥10 years in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2013-2015. The stored serum samples were used to measure folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine concentrations. A total of 8,016 participants were included in this analysis. Unweighted descriptive statistics and adjusted geometric means of the B vitamins and homocysteine concentrations were estimated.
RESULTS
Females had higher serum folate and vitamin B12 concentrations and lower serum homocysteine concentrations than males. Folate deficiency (<6.8 nmol/L) and hyperhomocysteinemia (>15 μmol/L) were found in 8.6% and 11.8% of males, respectively. Approximately 3% of males had low or marginally low vitamin B12 status (≤221 pmol/L). Folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies and hyperhomocysteinemia were found in <2% of females. Suboptimal folate status was prevalent among adolescents and young adults, while suboptimal vitamin B12 status and hyperhomocysteinemia were relatively higher in older adults. Adjusted mean homocysteine concentrations were sharply decreased from the first to second decile of serum folate in males.
CONCLUSIONS
In the Korean population, the proportion of males who achieved desirable folate and homocysteine concentrations were lower than those of females. Although most Koreans have adequate vitamin B12, a suboptimal folate status is common, particularly among adolescents and young adults. These findings could establish a foundation for public health initiatives aimed at improving folate levels in the Korean population.
Summary
Korean summary
엽산과 비타민B12는 전 생애에 걸쳐 건강에 영향을 미치는 필수 비타민이다. 그러나 해당 비타민 상태에 대한 국내 자료는 부족한 실정이다. 본 연구는 국민건강영양조사 참여자로부터 수집된 혈청으로부터 엽산, 비타민B12, 그리고 이들의 기능성 지표인 호모시스테인 농도를 측정하였고 성별과 연령별 분포와 적합 상태를 평가하였다. 엽산 결핍과 고호모시스테인혈증은 남성에서 높은 유병률을 가졌다. 적정 엽산 상태를 충족하지 못하는 비율은 청소년과 젊은 성인에서 흔하게 관찰되었다. 대부분의 한국인은 충분한 비타민B12 수준을 가졌으나, 노인의 경우 정기적인 평가가 필요하다. 본 연구는 한국인이 최적의 엽산과 비타민B12 상태를 유지하기 위한 기반적 근거를 제공한다.
Key Message
Folate and vitamin B12 have significant health impacts throughout the life cycle. However, national-level data on B vitamins in Korea are limited. Serum folate, vitamin B12, and homocysteine concentrations were measured from samples stored during the national survey. In our study, the proportions of folate deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia were higher in men than in women.Suboptimal folate status was common among adolescents and young adults. Most Koreans had adequate levels of vitamin B12; however, regular monitoring is warranted, especially in the older population. The current data provide a future direction for achieving optimal B vitamin status in the Korean population.
Special Articles
Identification of acute myocardial infarction and stroke events using the National Health Insurance Service database in Korea
Minsung Cho, Hyeok-Hee Lee, Jang-Hyun Baek, Kyu Sun Yum, Min Kim, Jang-Whan Bae, Seung-Jun Lee, Byeong-Keuk Kim, Young Ah Kim, JiHyun Yang, Dong Wook Kim, Young Dae Kim, Haeyong Pak, Kyung Won Kim, Sohee Park, Seng Chan You, Hokyou Lee, Hyeon Chang Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2024;46:e2024001.   Published online December 26, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2024001
  • 3,653 View
  • 96 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The escalating burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a critical public health issue worldwide. CVD, especially acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and stroke, is the leading contributor to morbidity and mortality in Korea. We aimed to develop algorithms for identifying AMI and stroke events from the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) database and validate these algorithms through medical record review.
METHODS
We first established a concept and definition of “hospitalization episode,” taking into account the unique features of health claims-based NHIS database. We then developed first and recurrent event identification algorithms, separately for AMI and stroke, to determine whether each hospitalization episode represents a true incident case of AMI or stroke. Finally, we assessed our algorithms’ accuracy by calculating their positive predictive values (PPVs) based on medical records of algorithm-identified events.
RESULTS
We developed identification algorithms for both AMI and stroke. To validate them, we conducted retrospective review of medical records for 3,140 algorithm-identified events (1,399 AMI and 1,741 stroke events) across 24 hospitals throughout Korea. The overall PPVs for the first and recurrent AMI events were around 92% and 78%, respectively, while those for the first and recurrent stroke events were around 88% and 81%, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS
We successfully developed algorithms for identifying AMI and stroke events. The algorithms demonstrated high accuracy, with PPVs of approximately 90% for first events and 80% for recurrent events. These findings indicate that our algorithms hold promise as an instrumental tool for the consistent and reliable production of national CVD statistics in Korea.
Summary
Key Message
In this study, we developed algorithms to identify acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and stroke events from the Korean National Health insurance Service database. To validate them, we conducted retrospective review of medical records across 24 hospitals throughout Korea. The overall positive predictive values for the first and recurrent AMI events were around 92% and 78%, respectively, while those for the first and recurrent stroke events were around 88% and 81%, respectively.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Incidence and case fatality rates of stroke in Korea, 2011-2020
    Jenny Moon, Yeeun Seo, Hyeok-Hee Lee, Hokyou Lee, Fumie Kaneko, Sojung Shin, Eunji Kim, Kyu Sun Yum, Young Dae Kim, Jang-Hyun Baek, Hyeon Chang Kim
    Epidemiology and Health.2023; : e2024003.     CrossRef
Mental health of Korean adults before and during the COVID-19 pandemic: a special report of the 2020 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Hyunsuk Jeong, Suyeon Park, Jihee Kim, Kyungwon Oh, Hyeon Woo Yim
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022042.   Published online April 25, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022042
  • 13,508 View
  • 525 Download
  • 15 Web of Science
  • 16 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the associated social distancing, limited freedom, and fear of an uncertain future are expected to have substantial mental health effects. We investigated mental health responses in the community during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic in Korea.
METHODS
We used 2016-2019 and 2020 data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) to assess pre-pandemic and pandemic mental health status, respectively, in terms of perceived severe stress, depression, and suicidal plans. All analyses were gender-stratified. Pre-specified subgroup analyses were performed according to age, employment status, and household income.
RESULTS
The percentage of Korean adults with suicidal plans increased significantly from 1.3%p (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1 to 1.5) in 2016-2019 to 1.8%p (95% CI, 1.4 to 2.1) in 2020. Individuals in their 20s and 40s showed a marked increase in suicidal plans (1.2%p; 95% CI, 0.0 to 2.3 and 0.9%p; 95% CI, 0.0 to 1.8, respectively). In men, depression and perceived severe stress increased significantly from pre-COVID-19 to 2020. There was a 2.4%p (95% CI, 0.8 to 4.0) increase in depression among standard workers and a 2.9%p increase in depression in individuals in the second-highest quintile of household income from 2016 and 2018 to 2020.
CONCLUSIONS
As COVID-19 continued, mental health issues such as suicidal plans, depression, and severe stress increased significantly in young men and people in the second-highest quintile of household income. Proactive community mental health efforts are needed to prevent increases in the suicide rate resulting from prolonged exposure to the COVID-19 pandemic.
Summary
Korean summary
코로나19 이전에 비해 코로나19 유행 첫 해 동안에 전체 인구에서 자살 계획 유병율이 유의하게 증가하였고 특히 20대-40대에서 증가 비율이 높았다. PHQ-9으로 측정한 우울증 유병율은 전체 남성에서 증가하였고 특히 30대 남성에서 증가 비율이 높았다. 코로나19 영향으로 자살 계획과 우울증과 같은 정신 건강 문제가 젊은 성인에서 크게 증가하였기 때문에 이러한 정신건강 문제가 자살률 증가로 이어지는 것을 방지하기 위해 국가적 차원의 체계적인 정책과 적극적인 지역사회 정신건강 중재가 필요하다.
Key Message
There was a significant increase in the prevalence of suicidal plan in the overall population during the first year of COVID-19 pandemic compared to pre-COVID-19. In particular, suicide plans increased among those in their 20s and 40s. The prevalence of PHQ-9 detected depression increased in all men, especially among men in their 30s. As mental health problems such as suicide planning and depression have significantly increased among young adults due to the impact of COVID-19, systematic policies at the national level and active community mental health interventions are needed to prevent these mental health problems from leading to an increase in suicide rates.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Mental Health Status of New Police Trainees before and during the COVID-19 Pandemic
    Joungsue Kim, Jiyoung Yoon, Inah Kim, Jeehee Min
    Healthcare.2024; 12(6): 645.     CrossRef
  • The Association of Acute Signs and Symptoms of COVID-19 and Exacerbation of Depression and Anxiety in Patients With Clinically Mild COVID-19: Retrospective Observational Study
    Sumi Sung, Su Hwan Kim, Changwoo Lee, Youlim Kim, Ye Seul Bae, Eui Kyu Chie
    JMIR Public Health and Surveillance.2023; 9: e43003.     CrossRef
  • The Risk of Major Depressive Disorder Due to Cataracts among the Korean Elderly Population: Results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) in 2016 and 2018
    Min-Jin Kang, Kyung-Yi Do, Nayeon Park, Min-Woo Kang, Kyoung Sook Jeong
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2023; 20(2): 1547.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence of Mental Disorders and Associated Factors in Korean Adults: National Mental Health Survey of Korea 2021
    Soo Jung Rim, Bong-Jin Hahm, Su Jeong Seong, Jee Eun Park, Sung Man Chang, Byung-Soo Kim, Hyonggin An, Hong Jin Jeon, Jin Pyo Hong, Subin Park
    Psychiatry Investigation.2023; 20(3): 262.     CrossRef
  • The association mental health of adolescents with economic impact during the COVID-19 pandemic: a 2020 Korean nationally representative survey
    Hanul Park, Kang-Sook Lee
    BMC Public Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Obstructive sleep apnea related to mental health, health-related quality of life and multimorbidity: A nationwide survey of a representative sample in Republic of Korea
    Mee-Ri Lee, Sung Min Jung, Frances Chung
    PLOS ONE.2023; 18(6): e0287182.     CrossRef
  • Comparison of Mental Health between the Older People Living Alone and Older People Not Living Alone before and during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Using the 2019-2020 Korea Community Health Survey
    Kyong Sil Park, Yeojoo Chae
    Journal of Health Informatics and Statistics.2023; 48(2): 132.     CrossRef
  • The risk of obstructive sleep apnea is highly correlated with depressive symptoms among the Korean adults population: results from the 2020 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
    Mi-Sun Lee, Hooyeon Lee
    BMC Psychiatry.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Associations between discrimination experiences and symptoms of depression and anxiety among transgender adults: a nationwide cohort study of 269 transgender adults in South Korea
    Sungsub Choo, Ranyeong Kim, Hyemin Lee, Yun-Jung Eom, Horim Yi, Rockli Kim, Seung-Sup Kim
    Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Gender Inequalities in Mental Health During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Population-based Study in Korea
    Minku Kang, Sarah Yu, Seung-Ah Choe, Daseul Moon, Myung Ki, Byung Chul Chun
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2023; 56(5): 413.     CrossRef
  • Mental health status of individuals with diabetes in Korea before and during the COVID-19 pandemic: a comparison of data from the Korean national health and nutrition examination surveys of 2018–2019 and 2020–2021
    Hyejin Jung
    BMJ Open.2023; 13(10): e074080.     CrossRef
  • Assessment of burnout level among clinical dental students during the COVID-19 pandemic
    Cumhur Korkmaz, Sibel Dikicier, Arzu Atay
    BMC Medical Education.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • The mechanisms of nature-based therapy on depression, anxiety, stress, and life satisfaction: examining mindfulness in a two-wave mediation model
    Minjung Kang, Yeji Yang, Hyunjin Kim, Songhie Jung, Hye-Young Jin, Kee-Hong Choi
    Frontiers in Psychology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Changes in the management of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia in Korean adults before and during the COVID-19 pandemic: data from the 2010-2020 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
    Yoonjung Kim, Suyeon Park, Kyungwon Oh, Hongseok Choi, Eun Kyeong Jeong
    Epidemiology and Health.2023; 45: e2023014.     CrossRef
  • Sadness, counseling for sadness, and sleep time and COVID-19 pandemic in South Korea: Rapid review and a post-hoc analysis
    Jungwoo Choi, Minji Kim, Min Seo Kim, Guillaume Fond, Laurent Boyer, Guillermo F López Sánchez, Elena Dragioti, Samuele Cortese, Ai Koyanagi
    Life Cycle.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Changes in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean adults after the COVID-19 outbreak
    Ji-Young Kwon, Sang-Wook Song
    Epidemiology and Health.2022; 44: e2022101.     CrossRef
Incidence and case fatality of acute myocardial infarction in Korea, 2011-2020
Yeeun Seo, Jenny Moon, Hyeok-Hee Lee, Hyeon Chang Kim, Fumie Kaneko, Sojung Shin, Eunji Kim, Jang-Whan Bae, Byeong-Keuk Kim, Seung Jun Lee, Min Kim, Hokyou Lee
Epidemiol Health. 2024;46:e2024002.   Published online December 26, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2024002
  • 3,446 View
  • 98 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of mortality worldwide, and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is particularly fatal condition. We evaluated the incidence and case fatality rates of AMI in Korea from 2011 to 2020.
METHODS
We utilized data from the National Health Insurance Services to calculate crude, age-standardized, and age-specific incidence rates, along with 30-day and 1-year case fatality rates, of AMI from 2011 to 2020. Age-standardized incidence rates were determined using direct standardization to the 2005 population.
RESULTS
The crude incidence rate of AMI per 100,000 person-years consistently increased from 44.7 in 2011 to 68.3 in 2019, before decreasing slightly to 66.2 in 2020. The age-standardized incidence rate of AMI displayed a 19% rise from 2011 to 2019, followed by a slight decline in 2020. The increasing trend for AMI incidence was more pronounced in males than in females. Both 30-day and 1-year case fatality rates remained stable among younger individuals but showed a decrease among older individuals. There was a minor surge in case fatality in 2020, particularly among recurrent AMI cases.
CONCLUSIONS
Over the past decade, the AMI incidence rate in Korea has consistently increased, with a slight downturn in 2020. The case fatality rate has remained relatively stable except for a minor increase in 2020. This study provides data for continuous surveillance, the implementation of targeted interventions, and the advancement of research aimed at AMI in Korea.
Summary
COVID-19: Original Article
Depression, anxiety, and stress in Korean general population during the COVID-19 pandemic
Hooyeon Lee, Dongwoo Choi, Jung Jae Lee
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022018.   Published online January 18, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022018
  • 14,472 View
  • 625 Download
  • 14 Web of Science
  • 15 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of poor mental health in the general Korean population during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.
METHODS
This cross-sectional, population-based, online survey-based study was conducted from November 5 to 20, 2020 and included adults aged 20-49 years in Chungnam Province, Korea. A total of 549 adults were included.
RESULTS
In total, 18.8% of the participants had symptoms of depression, 10.6% had symptoms of anxiety, and 5.1% had a high level of perceived stress during the COVID-19 pandemic. Higher levels of stress (odds ratio [OR], 3.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13 to 8.67), anxiety (OR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.09 to 4.49), and depression (OR, 3.00; 95% CI, 1.64 to 5.50) were found among never married, widowed, divorced, and separated people than among married/cohabiting/partnered participants. Participants who felt increased stress at home during the COVID-19 outbreak reported more depression (OR, 2.45; 95% CI, 1.49 to 4.05) and anxiety (OR, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.31 to 4.50). Women had higher risks of anxiety (OR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.09 to 3.58) and stress (OR, 6.40; 95% CI, 2.30 to 17.85) than men. Participants with the highest household income were less likely to report symptoms of stress than those with the lowest household income (OR, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.06 to 0.96).
CONCLUSIONS
The participants in this study exhibited poor mental health index scores, suggesting that some people are at risk for mental health problems during the COVID-19 pandemic. Being married was independently and significantly associated with a lower likelihood of depression, anxiety, and stress.
Summary
Korean summary
이 연구는 코로나-19 유행 기간 동안 정신건강 현황과 위험 요인을 알아보기 위한 단면연구이다. 코로나 19 유행 이후 가정내 스트레스가 증가했다고 응답한 경우 우울증과 불안감의 유병률이 높았다. 반면, 남성인 경우, 결혼했거나 동거인과 같이 살고 있는 경우에는 우울증, 불안 또는 스트레스의 유병률이 통계적으로 유의하게 낮았다. 마스크 착용하기, 비대면 활동 증가, 또는 사회적 거리두기 등 코로나 19의 유행을 통제하기 위한 많은 정책은 개인의 일상생활과 정신건강에 많은 영향을 미쳤다. 이 연구는 취약 집단을 발굴하고, 정신건강 회복을 위한 전략을 개발하는데 기초자료를 제공할 수 있다.
Key Message
This study revealed high prevalence rates of depression, anxiety, and stress in the general population of Korea aged 20-49 years during the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants who felt increased stress at home reported more depression and anxiety. Men and being married were significantly associated with a lower likelihood of depression, anxiety, or stress. The COVID-19 pandemic has been a traumatic event. In addi­tion, the policies created to prevent its spread have disrupted daily living for the general population. Implement­ing strategies to promote resilience and support psychologically vulnerable individuals during the COVID-19 cri­sis is of fundamental importance.

Citations

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  • Pandemic stressors and mental health indicators in eight countries
    Salma M Abdalla, Shaffi Fazaludeen Koya, Samuel B. Rosenberg, Isaac B. Stovall, Olivia Biermann, Zahra Zeinali, Gregory H. Cohen, Catherine K. Ettman, Sandro Galea
    Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology.2024; 59(4): 585.     CrossRef
  • Protective Behaviors Against COVID-19 and Related Factors in Korean Adults With Depressive Symptoms: Results From an Analysis of the 2020 Korean Community Health Survey
    Ho-Jun Cho, Kyeong-Sook Choi, Jin-Young Lee, Ji-Ae Yun, Je-Chun Yu
    Psychiatry Investigation.2024; 21(1): 74.     CrossRef
  • The Impact of the Successive Outbreaks of COVID-19, Vaccination, and Physical Activity on Mental Health in the Argentine Population: A Repeated Cross-Sectional Study
    Alejo Ramiro Barbuzza, Fabricio Ballarini, Celina Goyeneche, Victoria Reppucci, Pedro Benedetti, Franco Moscato, Jorge H Medina, Cynthia Katche, Diego Moncada, Haydeé Viola
    Cureus.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Differences in Functional Level and Central Symptom of Network Structures in the Patients Seeking Treatment for Panic Disorder Before and During the COVID-19 Pandemic
    Hyun-Ju Kim, Minji Bang, Chun Il Park, Chongwon Pae, Sang-Hyuk Lee
    Psychiatry Investigation.2023; 20(3): 245.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence of Mental Disorders and Associated Factors in Korean Adults: National Mental Health Survey of Korea 2021
    Soo Jung Rim, Bong-Jin Hahm, Su Jeong Seong, Jee Eun Park, Sung Man Chang, Byung-Soo Kim, Hyonggin An, Hong Jin Jeon, Jin Pyo Hong, Subin Park
    Psychiatry Investigation.2023; 20(3): 262.     CrossRef
  • Physical activity and mental health in Brazilian university students: An analysis in different sexes during the COVID-19 pandemic
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COVID-19: Special Article
Obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia in Korean adults before and during the COVID-19 pandemic: a special report of the 2020 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Ga Bin Lee, Yoonjung Kim, Suyeon Park, Hyeon Chang Kim, Kyungwon Oh
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022041.   Published online April 25, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022041
  • 13,940 View
  • 624 Download
  • 12 Web of Science
  • 20 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
We investigated trends in obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the Korean adult population.
METHODS
Data from 60,098 participants in the Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey between 2011 and 2020 aged ≥19 were used. The age-standardized prevalence and annual percent changes (APCs) were calculated for obesity (body mass index ≥25 kg/m2), hypertension (systolic/diastolic blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg or under treatment), diabetes (hemoglobin A1c ≥6.5%, fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL, physician diagnosis, or under treatment), and hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol ≥240 mg/dL or under treatment).
RESULTS
Over the past decade (2011-2020), the age-standardized APCs (95% confidence intervals) for obesity, hypertension, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia were 3.0% (2.1 to 3.8), 0.1% (-1.3 to 1.5), 1.5% (-1.0 to 4.0) and 8.0% (5.7 to 10.3), respectively, in men; and -0.2% (-1.5 to 1.2), -0.5% (-1.9 to 0.9), -0.1% (-2.3 to 2.2) and 5.9% (3.9 to 8.0), respectively, in women. In 2020 compared to the previous 3 years (2017-2019), obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia increased in men (6.0, 1.8, 1.9, and 2.8%p, respectively), but an increase was not apparent in women (2.5, -1.1, 0.8, and 0.7%p, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS
An increase in major chronic diseases was observed in Korean adults, especially men, during the COVID-19 pandemic. In order to reduce the burden of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in the future, effective intervention strategies need to be developed according to the characteristics of the target groups.
Summary
Korean summary
한국인의 비만, 고혈압, 당뇨 및 고지혈증 유병률은 지난 10년간 전반적으로 증가하는 경향을 보였다. 특히, 코로나 19가 유행한 2020년에 남성의 주요 만성질환 유병률은 지난 3년 평균치와 비교하였을 때 모두 유의하게 증가하였다. 반면, 여성에서 만성질환 유병률의 뚜렷한 증가는 관찰되지 않았다.
Key Message
During COVID-19 pandemic, the overall increase in major chronic diseases was observed in Korean adults, and this trend was prominent in men. Accordingly, target-specific intervention strategies need to be developed to reduce the burden of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in the future.

Citations

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COVID-19: Cohort Profile
Cohort profile: investigating SARS-CoV-2 infection and the health and psychosocial impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in the Canadian CHILD Cohort
Rilwan Azeez, Larisa Lotoski, Aimée Dubeau, Natalie Rodriguez, Myrtha E. Reyna, Tyler Freitas, Stephanie Goguen, Maria Medeleanu, Geoffrey L. Winsor, Fiona S. L. Brinkman, Emily E. Cameron, Leslie Roos, Elinor Simons, Theo J. Moraes, Piush J. Mandhane, Stuart E. Turvey, Shelly Bolotin, Kim Wright, Deborah McNeil, David M. Patrick, Jared Bullard, Marc-André Langlois, Corey R. Arnold, Yannick Galipeau, Martin Pelchat, Natasha Doucas, Padmaja Subbarao, Meghan B. Azad
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023091.   Published online October 13, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023091
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected all Canadian families, with some impacted differently than others. Our study aims to: (1) determine the prevalence and transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among Canadian families, (2) identify predictors of infection susceptibility and severity of SARS-CoV-2, and (3) identify health and psychosocial impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study builds upon the CHILD Cohort Study, an ongoing multi-ethnic general population prospective cohort consisting of 3,454 Canadian families with children born in Vancouver, Edmonton, Manitoba, and Toronto between 2009 and 2012. During the pandemic, CHILD households were invited to participate in the CHILD COVID-19 Add-On Study involving: (1) brief biweekly surveys about COVID-19 symptoms and testing; (2) quarterly questionnaires assessing COVID-19 exposure and testing, vaccination status, physical and mental health, and pandemic-driven life changes; and (3) in-home biological sampling kits to collect blood and stool. In total, 1,462 households (5,378 participants) consented to the CHILD COVID-19 Add-On Study: 2,803 children (mean±standard deviation [SD], 9.0±2.7 years; range, 0-17 years) and 2,576 adults (mean±SD, 43.0±6.5 years; range, 18-85 years). We will leverage the wealth of pre-pandemic CHILD data to identify risk and resilience factors for susceptibility and severity to the direct and indirect pandemic effects. Our short-term findings will inform key stakeholders and knowledge users to shape current and future pandemic responses. Additionally, this study provides a unique resource to study the long-term impacts of the pandemic as the CHILD Cohort Study continues.
Summary
Key Message
· This study of 1,462 Canadian families (5,378 individuals) leverages a decade of extensive pre-pandemic CHILD Cohort Study data to identify risk and resilience factors for susceptibility to the direct and indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. · Our short-term findings will inform key stakeholders and knowledge users to shape current and future pandemic responses. · This study provides a unique resource to study the long-term impacts of the pandemic as the CHILD Cohort Study continues.
COVID-19: Original Article
Body mass index and prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Korean adults before and after the COVID-19 outbreak: a retrospective longitudinal study
Joo-Eun Jeong, Hoon-Ki Park, Hwan-Sik Hwang, Kye-Yeung Park, Myoung-Hye Lee, Seon-Hi Shin, Nayeon Choi
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023081.   Published online August 29, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023081
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Studies evaluating weight changes during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have yielded inconsistent results, and most of those studies were based on self-reported anthropometric measures. We investigated changes in body mass index (BMI), professionally measured waist circumference (WC), and metabolic syndrome components from before to during the pandemic in a sample of the adult population in Korea.
METHODS
This retrospective study included 1,118 male and female (age≥18 years) who underwent health checkups at a university medical center between January 1, 2016 and March 31, 2022. Changes in BMI, lifestyles, and metabolic syndrome components during the pandemic were analyzed using the paired t-test, McNemar test, generalized estimating equations, and repeated-measures analysis of variance.
RESULTS
Changes in body weight, BMI, and body fat percentage during the pandemic were not clinically significant. However, statistically significant results were found for decreased physical activity (p<0.001) and WC (p<0.001), and exacerbation of all metabolic syndrome components (except serum triglyceride levels). Moreover, the metabolic syndrome prevalence increased significantly from 20.2% to 31.2% during the pandemic (p<0.001). The prevalence of abdominal obesity and high fasting blood glucose levels also significantly increased from 2019 to 2021.
CONCLUSIONS
Metabolic syndrome, its components, and fat distribution worsened significantly after the implementation of social distancing and lockdowns, despite no clinically significant changes in body weight and BMI. Further studies on the post- pandemic period should investigate the long-term impact of social lockdowns on BMI and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구에서는 한국인 성인들의 코로나 팬대믹으로 인한 사회적 거리 두기, 봉쇄 정책 전 후의 체질량지수, 생활습관, 그리고 대사증후군과 그 구성 요소들의 변화를 건강검진을 통해 측정한 객관적인 지표의 변화를 통해 알아보고자 하였다. 연구 결과, 사회적 거리 두기 및 봉쇄 전후의 체질량지수와 체중은 유의미한 변화가 없었으나, 신체 활동량은 유의미하게 감소하였고, 체지방률, 허리둘레가 늘어났다. 그리고 중성지방을 제외하고 다른 대사증후군의 구성 요소인 혈압, 고밀도지단백 콜레스테롤, 공복혈당 지표는 악화되었다. 하위 그룹 분석에서 매년 검진을 시행 받은 대상자들 및 고혈압, 당뇨병, 이상지질혈증 약을 복용하지 않는 대상자들의 코로나-19 전후 연도별 대사 지표의 변화를 분석한 결과, 복부비만 유병률과 공복 혈당의 증가 양상이 뚜렷하였다.
Key Message
Although there was no significant change in BMI and weight, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, abdominal obesity, and fasting blood glucose level prominently worsened after the implementation of social distancing and lockdowns. Such findings may indicate deterioration of insulin resistance during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study provides valuable information for healthcare professionals, policymakers, and the general public towards mitigating the negative consequences of the pandemic on metabolic health, regardless of weight gain.
COVID-19: Original Article
The impact of COVID-19 on screening for colorectal, gastric, breast, and cervical cancer in Korea
Hyeree Park, Seung Hee Seo, Jong Heon Park, Shin Hye Yoo, Bhumsuk Keam, Aesun Shin
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022053.   Published online June 21, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022053
  • 10,471 View
  • 446 Download
  • 14 Web of Science
  • 15 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected the utilization of healthcare services, including participation in cancer screening programs. We compared cancer screening participation rates for colorectal, gastric, breast, and cervical cancers among participants in the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) in 2019 and 2020 to address the potential distraction effect of COVID-19 on cancer screening.
METHODS
Data from the NCSP for 4 cancer types (stomach, colorectal, breast, and cervical) in 2019 and 2020 were used to calculate cancer screening participation rates by calendar month, gender, age group, and geographical region. Monthly participation rates were analyzed per 1,000 eligible individuals.
RESULTS
The screening participation rate decreased in 2020 compared to 2019 for all 4 cancers: colorectal (40.5 vs. 35.3%), gastric (61.9 vs. 54.6%), breast (63.8 vs. 55.8%), and cervical (57.8 vs. 52.2%) cancers. Following 2 major COVID-19 waves in March and December 2020, the participation rates in the 4 types of cancer screening dropped compared with those in 2019. The highest decline was observed in the elderly population aged 80 years and older (percentage change: -21% for colorectal cancer; -20% for gastric cancer; -26% for breast cancer; -20% for cervical cancer).
CONCLUSIONS
After the 2 major COVID-19 waves, the screening participation rate for 4 types of cancer declined compared with 2019. Further studies are needed to identify the indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on cancer patients, such as delayed diagnoses of cancer or excess cancer deaths.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 코로나 대유행 기간 전과 후 대장암, 위암, 유방암, 자궁경부암 검진 수검률 차이를 비교하고자 하였다. 첫 코로나 확진자가 발생한 2020년을 코로나 대유행 기간, 전년도 기간인 2019년을 코로나 대유행 전 기간으로 설정하며 국민건강보험공단에서 집계된 전수자료를 이용하여 암 검진 대상자 수와 수검자 수를 비교 분석하였다. 4개 암종 모두에서 2019년도와 비교하여 2020년도에 전국적으로 수검률이 감소하는 경향이 있었으며, 1차 대유행이 있었던 3월과 3차 대유행 시기인 12월에 2019년도 동기간과 비교하여 수검률이 크게 감소하였고, 80대 이상 노인 인구에서 감소폭이 다른 연령대와 비교하여 크게 나타났다.
Key Message
We found decline of the colorectal, gastric, breast and cervical cancer screening participation rates in 2020 following the two major COVID-19 waves, compared with those of 2019, and the highest decline was observed in the elderly population aged 80 years and older.

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COVID-19: Original Article
Effective vaccination strategies to control COVID-19 in Korea: a modeling study
Youngsuk Ko, Kyong Ran Peck, Yae-Jean Kim, Dong-Hyun Kim, Eunok Jung
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023084.   Published online September 7, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023084
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
In Korea, as immunity levels of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the population acquired through previous infections and vaccinations have decreased, booster vaccinations have emerged as a necessary measure to control new outbreaks. The objective of this study was to identify the most suitable vaccination strategy for controlling the surge in COVID-19 cases.
METHODS
A mathematical model was developed to concurrently evaluate the immunity levels induced by vaccines and infections. This model was then employed to investigate the potential for future resurgence and the possibility of control through the use of vaccines and antivirals.
RESULTS
As of May 11, 2023, if the current epidemic trend persists without further vaccination efforts, a peak in resurgence is anticipated to occur around mid-October of the same year. Under the most favorable circumstances, the peak number of severely hospitalized patients could be reduced by 43% (n=480) compared to the scenario without vaccine intervention (n=849). Depending on outbreak trends and vaccination strategies, the best timing for vaccination in terms of minimizing this peak varies from May 2023 to August 2023.
CONCLUSIONS
Our findings suggest that if the epidemic persist, the best timing for administering vaccinations would need to be earlier than currently outlined in the Korean plan. It is imperative to continue monitoring outbreak trends, as this is key to determining the best vaccination timing in order to manage potential future surges.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 자연감염 혹은 백신으로 획득된 면역의 저하를 고려한 수리모델을 사용하여 COVID-19에 대한 백신 접종 전략 분석 결과를 보인다. 시뮬레이션 결과는 추가 백신 접종이 없을 경우 재유행의 정점이 800명을 넘을 것임을 나타내며, 적절한 시기에 백신을 접종하면 최대 재원 위중증환자수를 약 40%까지 줄일 수 있음을 보인다. 본 연구는 확진자 추세의 지속적인 모니터링이 백신 접종의 적정 시기를 결정하고 미래 COVID-19의 재유행을 효과적으로 관리하는 데 필요하다는 점을 강조한다.
Key Message
Our study analyzes strategies for COVID-19 through vaccination, using a mathematical model considering waning immunity from past infections and vaccinations. Results indicate that a resurgence peak would reach more than 800 without further vaccination, and suggest vaccination in proper timing can reduce the peak size of administered severe patients by up to approximately 40%. The study emphasizes the importance of ongoing monitoring of outbreak trends to manage vaccination timing and future COVID-19 surges effectively.
COVID-19: Original Article
Risk of lymphadenopathy from SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in Korea: a self-controlled case series analysis
Mi-Sook Kim, Bongyoung Kim, Jeong Pil Choi, Nam-Kyong Choi, Jung Yeon Heo, Jun Yong Choi, Joongyub Lee, Sang Il Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023090.   Published online October 13, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023090
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
To assess the risk of lymphadenopathy following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination.
METHODS
A self-controlled case series design was used to determine whether the risk of lymphadenopathy was higher in the 1-day to 42-day risk interval after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination compared to the control period. In addition, subgroup analyses were conducted according to baseline characteristics, time since vaccination, and sensitivity analyses adjusted for the length of the risk interval.
RESULTS
The risk of developing lymphadenopathy in the risk interval (1-42 days) after COVID-19 vaccination compared to the control period was significantly increased, with a relative incidence (RI) of 1.17 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17 to 1.18) when the first, second, and third doses were combined. The RI was greater on the day of vaccination (1.47; 95% CI, 1.44 to 1.50). In subgroup analyses by baseline characteristics, a significantly increased risk or trend toward increased risk was observed in most subgroups except for those aged 70 years and older, with a significant increase in risk in younger individuals, those with a Charlson’s comorbidity index <5, and those who received mRNA vaccines (mRNA-1273>BNT162b2). Within the 1-day to 42-day post-dose risk period, the relative risk was highest during the 1-day to 7-day post-dose period (1.59; 95% CI, 1.57 to 1.60) compared to the control period, and then the risk declined. In the sensitivity analysis, we found that the longer the risk window, the smaller the RI.
CONCLUSIONS
SARS-CoV-2 vaccination is associated with a statistically significant increase in the risk of lymphadenopathy, and this risk was observed only with mRNA vaccines.
Summary
Korean summary
질병관리청의 코로나19 예방접종자료와 국민건강보험공단 자료를 이용하여 수행한 본 자기대조환자군 연구에서 코로나19 백신접종은 42일 내 림프절병증 발생위험을 1.17배 (95% 신뢰구간, 1.17-1.18) 증가시키는 것으로 나타났다. 이러한 위험의 증가는 mRNA 백신에 국한하여 관찰되었으며 연령이 낮을수록, 여성일수록 상대위험도가 높은 것으로 나타났다.
Key Message
This self-controlled case series study, using the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency COVID-19 vaccination database and the National Health Insurance Service database, showed an increased risk of developing lymphadenopathy following vaccination (RR 1.17; 95% CI, 1.17 to 1.18). The elevated risk of lymphadenopathy is specifically associated with mRNA platform vaccines, not viral vector vaccines, and is more pronounced in younger individuals and females.
COVID-19: Original Article
Forecasting the effects of vaccination on the COVID-19 pandemic in Malaysia using SEIRV compartmental models
Mei Cheng Lim, Sarbhan Singh, Chee Herng Lai, Balvinder Singh Gill, Mohd Kamarulariffin Kamarudin, Ahmed Syahmi Syafiq Md Zamri, Cia Vei Tan, Asrul Anuar Zulkifli, Mohamad Nadzmi Md Nadzri, Nur'ain Mohd Ghazali, Sumarni Mohd Ghazali, Nuur Hafizah Md Iderus, Nur Ar Rabiah Binti Ahmad, Jeyanthi Suppiah, Kok Keng Tee, Tahir Aris, Lonny Chen Rong Qi Ahmad
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023093.   Published online October 17, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023093
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study aimed to develop susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered-vaccinated (SEIRV) models to examine the effects of vaccination on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) case trends in Malaysia during Phase 3 of the National COVID-19 Immunization Program amidst the Delta outbreak.
METHODS
SEIRV models were developed and validated using COVID-19 case and vaccination data from the Ministry of Health, Malaysia, from June 21, 2021 to July 21, 2021 to generate forecasts of COVID-19 cases from July 22, 2021 to December 31, 2021. Three scenarios were examined to measure the effects of vaccination on COVID-19 case trends. Scenarios 1 and 2 represented the trends taking into account the earliest and latest possible times of achieving full vaccination for 80% of the adult population by October 31, 2021 and December 31, 2021, respectively. Scenario 3 described a scenario without vaccination for comparison.
RESULTS
In scenario 1, forecasted cases peaked on August 28, 2021, which was close to the peak of observed cases on August 26, 2021. The observed peak was 20.27% higher than in scenario 1 and 10.37% lower than in scenario 2. The cumulative observed cases from July 22, 2021 to December 31, 2021 were 13.29% higher than in scenario 1 and 55.19% lower than in scenario 2. The daily COVID-19 case trends closely mirrored the forecast of COVID-19 cases in scenario 1 (best-case scenario).
CONCLUSIONS
Our study demonstrated that COVID-19 vaccination reduced COVID-19 case trends during the Delta outbreak. The compartmental models developed assisted in the management and control of the COVID-19 pandemic in Malaysia.
Summary
Key Message
The effectiveness of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination against the highly transmissible Delta variant remained uncertain during the initial phase of the Delta outbreak in Malaysia. The innovative use of compartmental models provided scientific evidence of the potential impact of COVID-19 vaccination in reducing COVID-19 case trends based on local epidemiological data and offered forecasts of COVID-19 case trends based on varying vaccination rates which assisted resource planning and enhanced healthcare system preparedness. This evidence played a crucial role in bolstering public confidence in vaccination efforts and assisted in the control and management of the pandemic.
Original Article
Decomposition of socioeconomic inequalities in glaucoma knowledge in Taiwan
Chiun-Ho Hou, Christy Pu
Epidemiol Health. 2024;46:e2024004.   Published online December 5, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2024004
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Glaucoma knowledge is strongly associated with medication adherence and preventive behavior. Studies have frequently reported socioeconomic inequalities in glaucoma knowledge. This study aimed to decompose such inequalities. Decomposition analysis enables the design of policies directly targeting the underlying causes of inequality.
METHODS
We performed a cross-sectional survey from January 1, 2019 to June 30, 2019, at the departments of ophthalmology of 2 medical centers belonging to a hospital chain in northern Taiwan. Socioeconomic inequalities in glaucoma knowledge were ranked based on 3 aspects of socioeconomic status (SES): (1) education, (2) income, and (3) self-perceived financial status. The concentration index was calculated and decomposed using decomposition analysis. Elasticity and marginal effects were estimated for each decomposed factor.
RESULTS
In total, 1,203 patients completed the survey. Both measures of glaucoma knowledge and overall glaucoma knowledge score significantly contributed to the progressivity of knowledge inequalities (pro-high-SES inequalities). The concentration index for overall knowledge score with respect to education was 0.166 (p<0.001). Both objective and subjective measures of SES were associated with pro-high-SES inequalities. Our decomposition analysis revealed that demographic factors and attitudinal factors such as the level of concern regarding developing glaucoma contributed significantly to SES-based inequalities in glaucoma knowledge.
CONCLUSIONS
Our decomposition analysis provided empirical evidence regarding the underlying causes of SES-based inequalities in glaucoma knowledge. Efforts to improve glaucoma knowledge should consider specific factors that drive SES-based inequalities, such as age, sex, and concern about vision health, to ultimately achieve low SES-based inequalities.
Summary
Key Message
This study investigates the relationship between glaucoma knowledge and socioeconomic status (SES) inequalities, and the underlying causes of these disparities. The study concludes that understanding the drivers of SES-based inequalities in glaucoma knowledge, like age, gender, and concerns about vision health, is crucial. This understanding can guide efforts to improve glaucoma awareness and address SES-based disparities in knowledge, aiming to reduce these inequalities.

Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health