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1 "Ardeshir Khosravi"
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Original Article
Modification of the effect of ambient air temperature on cardiovascular and respiratory mortality by air pollution in Ahvaz, Iran
Sohrab Iranpour, Soheila Khodakarim, Abbas Shahsavani, Ardeshir Khosravi, Koorosh Etemad
Epidemiol Health. 2020;42:e2020053.   Published online July 18, 2020
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
This study investigated the modification of temperature effects on cardiovascular and respiratory mortality by air pollutants (particulate matter less than 2.5 and 10 µm in diameter [respectively], ozone, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and sulfur dioxide).
Poisson additive models with a penalized distributed lag non-linear model were used to assess the association of air temperature with the daily number of deaths from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases in Ahvaz, Iran from March 21, 2014 to March 20, 2018, controlling for day of the week, holidays, relative humidity, wind speed, air pollutants, and seasonal and long-term trends. Subgroup analyses were conducted to evaluate the effect modification for sex and age group. To assess the modification of air pollutants on temperature effects, the level of each pollutant was categorized as either greater than the median value or less than/equal to the median value.
We found no significant associations between temperature and cardiovascular and respiratory mortality. In the subgroup analyses, however, high temperatures were significantly associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality among those 75 years old and older, with the strongest effect observed on day 0 relative to exposure. The results revealed a lack of interactive effects between temperature and air pollutants on cardiovascular and respiratory mortality.
A weak but significant association was found between high temperature and cardiovascular mortality, but only in elderly people. Air pollution did not significantly modify the effect of ambient temperature on cardiovascular and respiratory mortality.


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Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health