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Original Article
Smoking-attributable mortality among Korean adults in 2019
Yeun Soo Yang, Keum Ji Jung, Heejin Kimm, Sunmi Lee, Sun Ha Jee
Epidemiol Health. 2024;46:e2024011.   Published online December 19, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2024011
  • 1,269 View
  • 84 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Tobacco use ranks among the leading preventable causes of death worldwide. This study was conducted to calculate the mortality rate attributable to smoking in Korea for 2019 and to highlight the importance of tracking and monitoring smoking-related deaths for public health purposes.
METHODS
Population attributable risk (PAR) was used to estimate the number of deaths related to smoking in 2019. PAR percentages were applied to the estimated mortality figures for various diseases, with PAR determined based on relative risk (RR). Levin’s formula was used to calculate PAR, and RR was adjusted for age and alcohol consumption using Cox proportional hazards regression model to derive disease-specific regression coefficients. The analysis incorporated previously determined smoking rates from 1985, and use rates of novel tobacco products were not considered.
RESULTS
The findings revealed a total of 67,982 smoking-attributable deaths in Korea in 2019, 56,993 of which occurred in men and 11,049 in women. The PAR of smoking for various causes of death in adult men was highest for lung cancer at 74.9%, followed by pneumonia (29.4%), ischemic heart disease (42.3%), and stroke (30.2%). For women, the PAR for smoking-related death was highest for lung cancer (19.9%), followed by stroke (7.6%), pneumonia (5.7%), and ischemic heart disease (9.1%).
CONCLUSIONS
In countries experiencing rapid fluctuations in smoking rates, including Korea, regular studies on smoking-related mortality is imperative. Furthermore, it is necessary to investigate smoking-related deaths, including the prevalence of novel tobacco product use, to accurately gauge the risks associated with emerging tobacco products.
Summary
Korean summary
이 연구는 2019년 한국에서 흡연으로 인한 사망률을 계산하고 공중 보건 목적을 위한 흡연 관련 사망추적 및 모니터링의 중요성을 강조합니다. 연구 결과, 2019년 한국에서 흡연으로 인해 총 67,982명이 사망했으며, 이 중 남성이 56,993명, 여성이 11,049명이었습니다. 특히 남성의 경우 폐암(74.9%), 여성의 경우 폐암(19.9%)에서 흡연으로 인한 사망 위험이 가장 높게 나타났습니다.
Key Message
This study analyzed deaths attributable to smoking in Korea in 2019, revealing that a total of 67,982 individuals lost their lives due to smoking. Among these, 56,993 were men and 11,049 were women, with the highest smoking-related mortality rate observed in men due to lung cancer at 74.9%, and in women due to lung cancer at 19.9%. Through these findings, this research emphasizes the importance of tracking and monitoring smoking-related deaths for public health.
Special Articles
Cancer risk based on alcohol consumption levels: a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis
Seunghee Jun, Hyunjin Park, Ui-Jeong Kim, Eun Jeong Choi, Hye Ah Lee, Bomi Park, Soon Young Lee, Sun Ha Jee, Hyesook Park
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023092.   Published online October 16, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023092
  • 4,113 View
  • 372 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Alcohol consumption is a well-established risk factor for cancer. Despite extensive research into the relationship between alcohol consumption and cancer risk, the effect of light alcohol consumption on cancer risk remains a topic of debate. To contribute to this discourse, we conducted a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis.
METHODS
Our systematic review aimed to investigate the associations between different levels of alcohol consumption and the risk of several cancer types. We focused on analyzing prospective associations using data from 139 cohort studies. Among them, 106 studies were included in the meta-analysis after a quantitative synthesis.
RESULTS
Our analysis did not find a significant association between light alcohol consumption and all-cause cancer risk (relative risk, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 0.99 to 1.04), but we observed a dose-response relationship. Light alcohol consumption was significantly associated with higher risks of esophageal, colorectal, and breast cancers. Light to moderate drinking was associated with elevated risks of esophageal, colorectal, laryngeal, and breast cancers. Heavy drinking was also found to contribute to the risk of stomach, liver, pancreas, and prostate cancers, thereby increasing the risk of almost all types of cancer. Additionally, females generally had lower cancer risks compared to males.
CONCLUSIONS
Our findings highlight that cancer risks extend beyond heavy alcohol consumption to include light alcohol consumption as well. These findings suggest that there is no safe level of alcohol consumption associated with cancer risk. Our results underscore the importance of public health interventions addressing alcohol consumption to mitigate cancer risks.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 코호트 연구를 기반으로 하여 음주의 수준에 따른 암 위험 연관성에 대해 체계적 문헌고찰(139편)과 메타분석(106편)을 수행하였다. 연구 결과, 음주와 암 위험 사이에 용량-반응 관계가 나타났으며, 소량의 음주는 암 유형에 따라 차이가 있었으나, 식도암, 대장암, 전립선암(남성), 유방암(여성)에서 암 위험과의 연관성이 있음을 발견했다. 따라서, 암 위험 측면에서 음주에 안전한 수준이 없음을 시사하며, 음주와 관련된 잠재적 피해를 완화하기 위해서는 음주 지침 강화와 같은 공중보건개입이 필요하다.
Key Message
The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between different levels of alcohol consumption and the risk of various cancer types through a systematic review and meta-analysis, providing insights into the ongoing debate about alcohol consumption and cancer causality. The findings support a dose-response relationship between alcohol consumption levels and cancer risk and the light alcohol consumption was associated with risks of esophageal, colorectal, prostate (male), and breast (female) cancer. These results emphasize the absence of a safe threshold for alcohol consumption in terms of cancer risk.

Citations

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  • Exploring genetic associations of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis with extraintestinal cancers in European and East Asian populations
    Chengdong Yu, Jiawei Xu, Siyi Xu, Lei Tang, Qinyuan Han, Xiaoqiang Zeng, Yanxiao Huang, Tenghua Yu, Zhengkui Sun
    Frontiers in Immunology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
Genetically determined alcohol consumption and cancer risk in Korea
Keum Ji Jung, Ji Woo Baek, Sang Yop Shin, Sun Ha Jee
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023077.   Published online August 23, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023077
  • 4,005 View
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  • 2 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The purpose of this study was to determine the causal relationship between the genetically determined amount of alcohol consumption and the occurrence of major cancers.
METHODS
The data used in this study were from 129,324 people selected from the Korean Cancer Prevention Study-II, the participants of which visited 18 health examination centers between 2004 and 2013. Cancer incidence was confirmed as of 2020 using data from the National Cancer Center. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) on alcohol consumption was performed using PLINK 2.0, and sex, age, chip type, and principal components were adjusted.
RESULTS
From the GWAS, a genetic risk score for alcohol consumption was calculated and genetically determined alcohol consumption (GDAC) was estimated. GDAC was divided into quintile groups and showed significant causal relationships with rectal cancer and liver cancer, but not with other cancers. For liver cancer, an association was shown in the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative group, and a particularly strong association was found in the over-60-year-old HBsAg-negative group, in which, compared to the GDAC Q1 group, the Q4 group had a 2.35 times higher risk (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05 to 5.23), and the Q5 group had a 2.40 times higher risk (95% CI, 1.09 to 5.30).
CONCLUSIONS
The results of this study provided evidence that the amount of alcohol consumed is causally related to the occurrence of rectal cancer and liver cancer in HBsAg-negative individuals. Additional studies should be continued for other cancer types through long-term follow-up.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 유전적으로 결정되는 음주량과 주요 암 발생 사이의 인과 관계를 밝히고자 하였다. 그 결과 유전적으로 결정되는 음주량이 증가할수록 직장암 발생 위험이 높아졌고, 특히 HBsAg 음성인 사람에서 간암 발생 위험이 높아지는 것으로 밝혀졌다.
Key Message
The purpose of this study was to reveal the causal relationship between genetically determined alcohol consumption and the incidence of major cancers. As a result, it was found that as the genetically determined amount of alcohol consumed increases, the risk of rectal cancer increases, and especially in people who are HBsAg negative, the risk of liver cancer increases.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • A pan-cancer analysis of the prognostic implication and oncogenic role of tubulin epsilon and delta complex 2 (TEDC2) in human tumors
    Yang Liu, Jie Zhu, Jing Shen, Yuting Lu, Ke Pan, Chuan Tong, Yao Wang
    Frontiers in Immunology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Cancer risk based on alcohol consumption levels: a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis
    Seunghee Jun, Hyunjin Park, Ui-Jeong Kim, Eun Jeong Choi, Hye Ah Lee, Bomi Park, Soon Young Lee, Sun Ha Jee, Hyesook Park
    Epidemiology and Health.2023; 45: e2023092.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Prediction of cancer survivors’ mortality risk in Korea: a 25-year nationwide prospective cohort study
Yeun Soo Yang, Heejin Kimm, Keum Ji Jung, Seulji Moon, Sunmi Lee, Sun Ha Jee
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022075.   Published online September 13, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022075
  • 4,910 View
  • 149 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study aimed to investigate the factors affecting cancer survival and develop a mortality prediction model for Korean cancer survivors. Our study identified lifestyle and mortality risk factors and attempted to determine whether health-promoting lifestyles affect mortality.
METHODS
Among the 1,637,287 participants in the Korean Cancer Prevention Study (KCPS) cohort, 200,834 cancer survivors who were alive after cancer diagnosis were analyzed. Discrimination and calibration for predicting the 10-year mortality risk were evaluated. A prediction model was derived using the Cox model coefficients, mean risk factor values, and mean mortality from the cancer survivors in the KCPS cohort.
RESULTS
During the 21.6-year follow-up, the all-cause mortality rates of cancer survivors were 57.2% and 39.4% in men and women, respectively. Men, older age, current smoking, and a history of diabetes were high-risk factors for mortality, while exercise habits and a family history of cancer were associated with reduced risk. The prediction model discrimination in the validation dataset for both KCPS all-cause mortality and KCPS cancer mortality was shown by C-statistics of 0.69 and 0.68, respectively. Based on the constructed prediction models, when we modified exercise status and smoking status, as modifiable factors, the cancer survivors’ risk of mortality decreased linearly.
CONCLUSIONS
A mortality prediction model for cancer survivors was developed that may be helpful in supporting a healthy life. Lifestyle modifications in cancer survivors may affect their risk of mortality in the future.
Summary
Korean summary
현재 암 생존자의 사망 위험을 평가하는 데 유용한 한국형 암 생존자 사망률 예측 모델은 없습니다. 본 연구에서는 고령, 남성, 현재 흡연, 당뇨병 병력을 포함한 생활양식 요인이 사망의 고위험 요인인 반면, 운동 습관 및 암의 가족력은 사망 위험을 감소시키는 것으로 나타났습니다. 현재 흡연과 운동 습관은 사망 위험에 영향을 미치는 수정 가능한 두 가지 요소로써, 이러한 생활습관 요인으로 구성된 예측모형은 생활습관 교정을 통해 우리나라 암 생존자의 사망률을 낮출 수 있음을 시사합니다.
Key Message
Currently, there is no Korean mortality prediction model for cancer survivors that would be useful in evaluating their risk of mortality. The present study showed that lifestyle factors, including older age, male sex, current smoking, and history of diabetes were high-risk factors for mortality, while exercise habits and a family history of cancer reduced the risk of mortality. Current smoking and exercise habits are the two modifiable factors that affected the risk of mortality. The prediction model comprising these lifestyle factors implies that the risk of mortality of cancer survivors in Korea can be reduced through lifestyle modification.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • COVID-19 Mortality and Severity in Cancer Patients and Cancer Survivors
    Jae-Min Park, Hye Yeon Koo, Jae-ryun Lee, Hyejin Lee, Jin Yong Lee
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Weight maintenance and gain were significantly associated with lower risk of all-cause and cancer-related mortality in Korean adults who were newly diagnosed with cancer based on the Korean NHIS-HEALS cohort
    Yong-June Kim, Seung Park, Won Tae Kim, Yoon-Jong Bae, Yonghwan Kim, Hee-Taik Kang
    Medicine.2023; 102(47): e36184.     CrossRef
The predictive value of resting heart rate in identifying undiagnosed diabetes in Korean adults: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Dong-Hyuk Park, Wonhee Cho, Yong-Ho Lee, Sun Ha Jee, Justin Y. Jeon
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022009.   Published online January 3, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022009
  • 10,592 View
  • 407 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The purpose of this study was (1) to examine whether the addition of resting heart rate (RHR) to the existing undiagnosed diabetes mellitus (UnDM) prediction model would improve predictability, and (2) to develop and validate UnDM prediction models by using only easily assessable variables such as gender, RHR, age, and waist circumference (WC).
METHODS
Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010, 2012, 2014, 2016 data were used to develop the model (model building set, n=19,675), while the data from 2011, 2013, 2015, 2017 were used to validate the model (validation set, n=19,917). UnDM was defined as a fasting glucose level ≥126 mg/dL or glycated hemoglobin ≥6.5%; however, doctors have not diagnosed it. Statistical package for the social sciences logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of UnDM.
RESULTS
RHR, age, and WC were associated with UnDM. When RHR was added to the existing model, sensitivity was reduced (86 vs. 73%), specificity was increased (49 vs. 65%), and a higher Youden index (35 vs. 38) was expressed. When only gender, RHR, age, and WC were used in the model, a sensitivity, specificity, and Youden index of 70%, 67%, and 37, respectively, were observed.
CONCLUSIONS
Adding RHR to the existing UnDM prediction model improved specificity and the Youden index. Furthermore, when the prediction model only used gender, RHR, age, and WC, the outcomes were not inferior to those of the existing prediction model.
Summary
Korean summary
당뇨병 미인지 또는 미진단은 적절한 치료 시작 시기를 늦추고 당뇨병 합병증 발생의 위험을 높이기 때문에, 각국은 당뇨병 예측 모형을 개발하여 당뇨병을 조기에 예측하고, 치료 시기를 앞당기기 위해 노력하고 있다. 본 연구는 기존의 한국인 당뇨병 예측 모형에 안정시심박수를 추가 변수로 포함시켜, 예측 모형의 성능이 일부개선되는 것을 확인하였고, 더 나아가 나이, 허리 둘레, 그리고 안정시심박수를 포함하여 예측 모형을 개발하고, 그 성능을 확인하였다. 본 연구에서는 간단하게 측정이 가능한 허리 둘레와 안정시심박수 그리고 나이만 포함한 예측 모형이 기존의 예측 모형과 비교해 성능이 열등하지 않은 것을 확인하였다.
Key Message
Higher RHR is associated with increased risk of diabetes. When RHR is added to the Korean undiagnosed diabetes risk score model (Age, Family history of diabetes, Hypertension, Waist circumference, Smoking, Alcohol consumption), the model somewhat increased its predictability of undiagnosed diabetes. Furthermore, the prediction model developed only using age, waist circumference and RHR, which anyone can easily measure or access, had similar predictability to the previous undiagnosed diabetes risk prediction model. The results of this study may help develop future strategies or applications for predicting early undiagnosed diabetes.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Comparisons of the prediction models for undiagnosed diabetes between machine learning versus traditional statistical methods
    Seong Gyu Choi, Minsuk Oh, Dong–Hyuk Park, Byeongchan Lee, Yong-ho Lee, Sun Ha Jee, Justin Y. Jeon
    Scientific Reports.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Factors related to undiagnosed diabetes in Korean adults: a secondary data analysis
    Bohyun Kim
    Journal of Korean Biological Nursing Science.2023; 25(4): 295.     CrossRef
Bilirubin and risk of ischemic heart disease in Korea: a two-sample Mendelian randomization study
Christina Jeon, Ji-Young Lee, Sun Ju Lee, Keum Ji Jung, Heejin Kimm, Sun Ha Jee
Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019034.   Published online July 12, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2019034
  • 11,918 View
  • 287 Download
  • 10 Web of Science
  • 10 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Bilirubin is an endogenous antioxidant that protects cells against oxidative stress. Increased plasma levels of bilirubin have been associated with a reduced risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in previous studies. Nonetheless, whether those associations reflect a true protective effect of bilirubin on IHD, rather than confounding or reverse causation, remains unknown. Therefore, we applied two-sample Mendelian randomization to evaluate the causal association between bilirubin levels and IHD risk in a Korean population.
METHODS
A total of 5 genetic variants—TRPM8 (rs10490012), USP40 (rs12993249), ATG16L1 (rs2119503), SLCO1B1 (rs4149014), and SLCO1B3 (rs73233620)—were selected as genetic instruments for serum bilirubin levels using a communitybased cohort, the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study, comprising 33,598 subjects. We then evaluated their impact on IHD using the Korean Cancer Prevention Study-II cohort.
RESULTS
Among the 5 instrumental variables that showed significant associations with serum bilirubin levels, rs12993249 (USP40) showed the most significant association (p<2.36×10-105). However, we found no significant association between serum bilirubin levels and IHD. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated a consistent association, suggesting that our observations were robust.
CONCLUSIONS
Using two-sample Mendelian randomization, we found no association between serum bilirubin levels and IHD. Further studies that confirm the observed interactions among other ethnicities are warranted.
Summary
Korean summary
이 연구는 대규모 한국인 코호트를 이용하여, 빌리루빈과 허혈성 심장질환의 인과성을 규명한 연구결과이다. 특히 두 가지 자료를 이용한 멘델리안 무작위배정 연구방법을 적용하여, 한국인을 대상으로 빌리루빈과 허혈성 심장질환의 인과성을 처음으로 규명한 점이 큰 시사점을 가진다.

Citations

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  • Association of Different Total Bilirubin Levels with Prognosis of Peritoneal Dialysis-Associated Peritonitis
    Yujian He, Jingjing Zhu, Fei Xiao, Qingyun Luo, Pengpeng Wang, Xu Wang, Yan He, Zibo Xiong
    Medicina.2023; 59(10): 1837.     CrossRef
  • Novel prognostic score based on the preoperative total bilirubin-albumin ratio and fibrinogen-albumin ratio in ampullary adenocarcinoma
    Xiao-Jie Zhang, He Fei, Chong-Yuan Sun, Ze-Feng Li, Zheng Li, Chun-Guang Guo, Dong-Bing Zhao
    World Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery.2023; 15(10): 2247.     CrossRef
  • The Nonlinear Relationship Between Total Bilirubin and Coronary Heart Disease: A Dose-Response Meta-Analysis
    Chaoxiu Li, Wenying Wu, Yumeng Song, Shuang Xu, Xiaomei Wu
    Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Another Reason to Cut Down on Alcohol?
    Hyeon Chang Kim
    Korean Circulation Journal.2022; 52(3): 231.     CrossRef
  • Serum bilirubin and kidney function: a Mendelian randomization study
    Sehoon Park, Soojin Lee, Yaerim Kim, Yeonhee Lee, Min Woo Kang, Kwangsoo Kim, Yong Chul Kim, Seung Seok Han, Hajeong Lee, Jung Pyo Lee, Kwon Wook Joo, Chun Soo Lim, Yon Su Kim, Dong Ki Kim
    Clinical Kidney Journal.2022; 15(9): 1755.     CrossRef
  • Heme Oxygenase-1 and Blood Bilirubin Are Gradually Activated by Oral D-Glyceric Acid
    O. Petteri Hirvonen, Maarit Lehti, Heikki Kyröläinen, Heikki Kainulainen
    Antioxidants.2022; 11(12): 2319.     CrossRef
  • Exploring the causal pathway from bilirubin to CVD and diabetes in the UK biobank cohort study: Observational findings and Mendelian randomization studies
    Lei Hou, Hongkai Li, Shucheng Si, Yuanyuan Yu, Xiaoru Sun, Xinhui Liu, Ran Yan, Yifan Yu, Chuan Wang, Fan Yang, Qing Wang, Fuzhong Xue
    Atherosclerosis.2021; 320: 112.     CrossRef
  • The causal association of bilirubin with cardiovascular disease: Are there still any questions?
    Claudia Lamina, Florian Kronenberg
    Atherosclerosis.2021; 320: 92.     CrossRef
  • Association between Alcohol Consumption and Serum Cortisol Levels: a Mendelian Randomization Study
    Jung-Ho Yang, Sun-Seog Kweon, Young-Hoon Lee, Seong-Woo Choi, So-Yeon Ryu, Hae-Sung Nam, Kyeong-Soo Park, Hye-Yeon Kim, Min-Ho Shin
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • SLCO1B1 Variants and The Risk of Antituberculosis Drug-induced Hepatotoxicity: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
    Min Zhu, Xinyu Chen, Zhuolu Hao, Yiwen He, Bing Han, Shaowen Tang
    Pharmacogenomics.2009; 24(18): 931.     CrossRef
Relationship between binge drinking experience and suicide attempts in Korean adolescents: based on the 2013 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey
Kyeong Hyang Byeon, Sun Ha Jee, Jae Woong Sull, Bo Young Choi, Heejin Kimm
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018046.   Published online September 26, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2018046
  • 12,980 View
  • 184 Download
  • 10 Web of Science
  • 13 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Suicide and drinking problems in adolescents are increasing every year, and it is known that suicide is related to drinking. This study aims to identify the relationship between binge drinking experience (BDE) and suicide attempts in Korean adolescents.
METHODS
The Ninth Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBS), conducted in 2013, was used for analysis. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify the relationship between BDE and suicide attempts, and the relationship between BDE and suicide attempts in middle and high school students was stratified by age.
RESULTS
BDE and suicide attempts were highly related. The odds ratio (OR) of attempted suicide in BDE was 1.63 times (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28 to 2.09) higher then non-drinking in males. And the OR of attempted suicide in females was 1.21 times (95% CI, 1.07 to 1.37) higher then non-drinking in non-BDE, 1.79 times (95% CI, 1.47 to 2.19) higher in BDE. BDE was associated with suicide attempts in males aged 12 or 13 years (OR, 3.97; 95% CI, 1.57 to 10.03) and in females aged 15 years (OR, 2.66; 95% CI, 1.79 to 3.96).
CONCLUSIONS
BDE is an important factor related to suicide attempts in adolescents. In order to reduce suicide attempts, it is necessary to educate the youth about the regulation of BDE and drinking prevention.
Summary

Citations

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    Pablo Juan-Salvadores, Luis Mariano de la Torre Fonseca, Antía Lafuente Pérez, Cesar Veiga, José A. González-Nóvoa, Andrés Iñiguez Romo, Francisco Caamaño Isorna, Víctor Alfonso Jiménez Díaz
    International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Prevalence and associated factors of binge drinking among high school students in Acapulco, Mexico: a cross-sectional study
    Abel Emigdio-Vargas, Arcadio Morales-Pérez, Elizabeth Nava-Aguilera, Alfonso Dávalos-Martínez, Nubia Blanco-García, Elia Barrera-Rodriguez, Liliana Morales-Nava, Neil Andersson
    Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy.2023; 30(6): 603.     CrossRef
  • Binge drinking and suicidal ideation in Peruvian adolescents: Evidence from a pooled cross-sectional survey
    Akram Hernández-Vásquez, Rodrigo Vargas-Fernández, Guido Bendezu-Quispe
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Perspective
The effect of smoking on lung cancer: ethnic differences and the smoking paradox
Keum Ji Jung, Christina Jeon, Sun Ha Jee
Epidemiol Health. 2016;38:e2016060.   Published online December 20, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2016060
  • 27,304 View
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  • 49 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
The objectives of this review were to determine whether the smoking paradox still exists and to summarize possible explanations for the smoking paradox. Based on published data, we compared the risk of cigarette smoking for lung cancer in Western and Asian countries. We extracted data from the relevant studies about annual tobacco consumption, lung cancer mortality rates according to smoking status from each country, and possible explanations for the smoking paradox. A significantly greater risk of lung cancer death was found among current smokers in Asian countries than among nonsmokers, with relative risks (RRs) of 4.0 to 4.6 for Koreans, 3.7 to 5.1 for Japanese, and 2.4 to 6.5 for Chinese. Although a significantly greater risk of lung cancer was present among current smokers in Asian countries, the RRs in Asian countries were much lower than those reported in Western countries (range, 9.4 to 23.2). Possible explanations for the smoking paradox included epidemiologic characteristics, such as the smoking amount, age at smoking initiation, and the use of filtered or mild tobacco. The smoking paradox definitely exists, but may be explained by major epidemiologic characteristics. Therefore, the smoking paradox should not be interpreted as indicating that tobacco is safer or less harmful for Asians.
Summary
Korean summary
흡연이 폐암에 미치는 관련성의 인종 차이 흡연은 폐암의 가장 큰 원인으로 알려져 있다. 그러나 흡연이 폐암에 미치는 관련성의 크기는 영국, 미국 등 서양에서 발표된 연구결과에서 10-20배 정도로 보고되고 있으나 한국, 일본, 중국 등 동양에서 발표된 연구에서 3-5배 정도로 낮게 보고되고 있다. 이러한 차이는 흡연유행, 담배성분, 흡연자 특성, 그리고 유전적인 차이로 일부 설명되고 있으나 아직 완전히 이해되어진 상태는 아니다. 이는 공중보건학적으로 매우 중요한 의미를 가지므로 동서양의 직접적인 비교연구가 필요할 것으로 생각된다.

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Original Articles
Impaired fasting glucose, single-nucleotide polymorphisms, and risk for colorectal cancer in Koreans
Keum Ji Jung, Miyong To Kim, Sun Ha Jee
Epidemiol Health. 2016;38:e2016002.   Published online January 6, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2016002
  • 16,390 View
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  • 9 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Numerous studies have demonstrated that fasting serum glucose (FSG) levels and certain single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are related to an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC); however, their combined effects are still unclear.
METHODS
Of a total of 144,527 men and women free of cancer at baseline, 317 developed CRC during 5.3 years of follow-up. A case-cohort study (n=1,691) was used, consisting of participants with a DNA sample available. Three well-known SNPs (rs3802842, rs6983267, rs10795668) were genotyped. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of CRC, colon and rectal cancer were calculated, with the Cox proportional hazard models.
RESULTS
The crude incidence rates per 100,000 person-years were 41.1 overall, 48.4 for men, and 29.3 for women. Among participants with dysglycemia, SNPs rs3802842 and rs6983267 were both associated with an increased risk of CRC (HR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.9 to 5.5 and HR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1 to 3.1, respectively) and rectal cancer (HR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.8 to 6.6 and HR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.6 to 7.1, respectively). The interaction effect of dysglycemia and SNPs was positive, that is, resulted in an elevated risk of CRC, but was not statistically significant.
CONCLUSIONS
This study demonstrates that both high FSG and certain SNPs are major risk factors for CRC and rectal cancer but that they did not interact synergistically. The difference in effect size of the SNPs according to CRC subtype (i.e., colon or rectal cancer) and presence of dysglycemia merits further research.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구에서는 공복혈당농도와 대장암과 관련된 단일염기다형성(SNP)과의 관련성을 살펴 보았다. 높은 공복혈당농도와 단일염기다형성(SNP_rs3802842, rs6983267)은 대장암의 주요한 위험요인이었으나, 두 가지 요인의 상호작용으로 인한 시너지 효과는 없는 것으로 나타났다. 대장암의 아형에 따른 다른 효과 크기와 이상혈당증 유무에 따른 향후 연구가 더 필요할 것으로 생각된다.

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Adiponectin is Associated with Impaired Fasting Glucose in the Non-Diabetic Population
Sang Yeun Kim, Sun Ju Lee, Hyoun Kyoung Park, Ji Eun Yun, Myoungsook Lee, Jidong Sung, Sun Ha Jee
Epidemiol Health. 2011;33:e2011007.   Published online August 20, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih/e2011007
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
<sec><title>OBJECTIVES</title><p>Adiponectin is strongly associated with diabetes in the Western population. However, whether adiponectin is independently associated with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in the non-obese population is unknown.</p></sec><sec><title>METHODS</title><p>The serum adiponectin, insulin resistance (IR), and waist circumference (WC) of 27,549 healthy Koreans were measured. Individuals were then classified into tertile groups by gender. IFG was defined as a fasting serum glucose of 100-125 mg/dL without diabetes. IR was calculated using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The association of adiponectin and IFG was determined using logistic regression analysis.</p></sec><sec><title>RESULTS</title><p>WC and adiponectin were associated with IFG in both men and women. However, the association of WC with IFG was attenuated in both men and women after adjustment for the HOMA-IR. Adiponectin was still associated with IFG after adjustment for and stratification by HOMA-IR in men and women. Strong combined associations of IR and adiponectin with IFG were observed in men and women. Multivariate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence interval [CI]) among those in the highest tertile of IR and the lowest tertile of adiponectin were 9.8 (7.96 to 12.07) for men and 24.1 (13.86 to 41.94) for women.</p></sec><sec><title>CONCLUSION</title><p>These results suggest that adiponectin is strongly associated with IFG, and point to adiponectin as an additional diagnostic biomarker of IFG in the non-diabetic population.</p></sec>
Summary

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ADIPOQ Gene Variants Associated with Susceptibility to Obesity and Low Serum Adiponectin Levels in Healthy Koreans
Ji Wan Park, Jungyong Park, Sun Ha Jee
Epidemiol Health. 2011;33:e2011003.   Published online April 25, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih/e2011003
  • 17,667 View
  • 123 Download
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
<sec><title>OBJECTIVES</title><p>This study aimed to measure the association between the adiponectin, C1Q and collagen domain-containing (<italic>ADIPOQ</italic>) gene variants and obesity in Koreans.</p></sec><sec><title>METHODS</title><p>Three single nucleotide polymorphisms located in the <italic>ADIPOQ</italic> gene were genotyped in a population-based cross-sectional study of 986 healthy Koreans. Three different case-control groups (i.e. G1, G2, and G3) were defined according to body mass index (BMI) and serum adiponectin levels. Allelic and genotypic associations of this gene with obesity were measured using multivariate logistic regression analyses in each group.</p></sec><sec><title>RESULTS</title><p>The G allele of -11377C>G, a polymorphism located in the promoter region of the <italic>ADIPOQ</italic> gene (odds ratio (OR), 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-1.94) and most haplotypes including this allele significantly increased the risk for obesity. However, the OR decreased from 3.98 (G1 group) to 2.90 (G2 group) and 2.30 (G3 group) when a less strict definition of obesity was used. Most haplotypes, including this allele, significantly increased the risk of obesity. The statistical evidence from the GG genotype of -11377C>G (OR, 3.98) and the GT/GT diplotype composed of -11377G>C and +45T>G (OR, 5.20) confirmed the contribution of the G allele toward a predisposition for obesity.</p></sec><sec><title>CONCLUSION</title><p>These results suggest the contribution of the <italic>ADIPOQ</italic> gene toward susceptibility to obesity in healthy Koreans. The high-risk genotypes and haplotypes identified here may provide more information for identifying individuals who are at risk of obesity.</p></sec>
Summary

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Association between Alcohol Intake and Abdominal Obesity among the Korean Population
Mikyung Ryu, Heejin Kimm, Jaeseong Jo, Sun Ju Lee, Sun Ha Jee
Epidemiol Health. 2010;32:e2010007.   Published online May 19, 2010
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih/e2010007
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
<sec><title>OBJECTIVES</title><p>Although abdominal obesity has been reported to be highly related with alcohol intake, the results are still inconclusive. Therefore, this study was conducted to explore the association between alcohol and abdominal obesity among the Korean population.</p></sec><sec><title>METHODS</title><p>This study included 8,603 participants (men: 5,195, women: 3,408) aged 30 to 87 who visited the health promotion centers in Seoul for routine health examinations from April, 2006 to June, 2007. Abdominal obesity was defined as WC ≥90 cm for men and ≥85 cm for women in accordance with the Korean Society for the Study of Obesity. For ever drinkers, total alcohol consumption in grams was classified into four groups (group 1, non-drinkers; group 2, 1-10 g of alcohol per day; group 3, 11-20 g of alcohol per day; and group 4, over 20 g of alcohol per day).</p></sec><sec><title>RESULTS</title><p>The mean age of the study population was 45.4 yr old (men) and 45.3 yr (women). The average waist circumference was 85.3 cm in men and 75.3 cm in women. A high alcohol intake was associated with high waist circumference in both genders. In multivariate analysis, the group of men and women drinkers consuming >20 g in a day had a large waist circumference compared with men and women non-drinkers.</p></sec><sec><title>CONCLUSION</title><p>This study showed that a high alcohol intake was related to high waist circumference. Such association remained independently even after adjustment for smoking, which is strongly related to abdominal obesity.</p></sec>
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Cardiovascular Risk Factors for Incident Hypertension in the Prehypertensive Population
Soo Jeong Kim, Jakyoung Lee, Sun Ha Jee, Chung Mo Nam, Kihong Chun, Il Soo Park, Soon Young Lee
Epidemiol Health. 2010;32:e2010003.   Published online May 1, 2010
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih/e2010003
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Abstract
<sec><title>OBJECTIVES</title><p>The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of changes in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors on progression from prehypertension (PreHTN) to hypertension (HTN) using an 8-yr prospective Korean Cancer Prevention Study (KCPS) by the National Health Insurance Corporation (NHIC) in Korea.</p></sec><sec><title>METHODS</title><p>A total of 16,229 subjects, aged 30 to 54, with new onset preHTN at baseline (1994-1996) in a biennial national medical exam were selected and followed up till 2004 at 2-yr intervals. All subjects underwent a biennial health examination including biochemical measurements and behavior. The log-rank test was performed to assess the relationship between changes in CVD risk factors and progression to HTN. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to identify factors influencing progression to HTN.</p></sec><sec><title>RESULTS</title><p>With regards the progression rate in men, ex-smokers (42.9%), abstainers (37.5%), and regular exercisers (37.6%) showed a slower progression rate than continuous smokers (49.5%) and continuous drinkers (50.9%). In women, those who participated in regular exercise (22.6%) had a lower rate of progression than continuous non-exercisers (36.1%). According to the results of the Cox proportional hazard model, improvements in smoking (hazard ratio [HR], 0.756), drinking (HR, 0.669), regular exercise (HR, 0.653), body mass index (HR, 0.715), and total cholesterol (HR, 0.788) played a protective role in progression to HTN in men, while in women, participating in regular exercise (HR, 0.534) was beneficial.</p></sec><sec><title>CONCLUSION</title><p>Improvements in CVD-related behaviors diminished the progression rate of HTN. This study suggests that individuals with PreHTN should be targeted for specific health behavioral intervention to prevent the progression of HTN.</p></sec>
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Examples and outlook of family-based cohort study.
Jae Woong Sull, Sue Kyung Park, Heechoul Ohrr, Sun Ha Jee
Korean J Epidemiol. 2008;30(1):49-59.   Published online June 30, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/kje.2008.30.1.49
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Abstract
Family-based designs are commonly used in genetic association studies to identify and to locate genes that underlie complex diseases. In this paper, we review two examples of genome-wide association studies using family-based cohort studies, including the Framingham Heart Study and International Multi-Center ADHD Genetics Project. We also review statistical methods of family-based designs, including the transmission disequilibrium test (TDT), linkage analysis, and imprinting effect analysis. In addition, we evaluate the strengths and limitations of the family-based cohort design. Despite the costs and difficulties in carrying out this type of study, a family-based cohort study can play avery important role in genome wide studies. First, the design will be free from biases due to population heterogeneity or stratification. Moreover, family-based designs provide the opportunity to conduct joint tests of linkage and association. Finally, family-based designs also allow access to epigenetic phenomena like imprinting. The family-based cohort design should be given careful consideration in planning new studies for genome-wide strategies.
Summary
Evaluation of risk prediction model for stroke risk based on Cox's and Weibull model in Korea.
Youn Nam Kim, Ur Rin Cho, Byung Ho Nam, Il Soo Park, Sun Ha Jee
Korean J Epidemiol. 2008;30(1):41-48.   Published online June 30, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/kje.2008.30.1.41
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to compare Cox proportional hazards model and Weibull model for predicting long-term probabilities for stroke risk in the Korean Cancer Prevention Study(KCPS).
METHODS
The subjects comprised of 385,279 Korean aged 55 to 64 years who received health insurance from the National Health Insurance Corporation and who had medical examinations in 1992 and 1995. 70% of the subjects were used for model building and the rest for model evaluation. The final prediction model for stroke includes age, systolic blood pressure, diabetes, total cholesterol and smoking. Subjects were follow-up for identification of incident stroke cases between 1993 and 2005. Comparisons included predicted coefficients of stroke risk factors, incidence probabilities over 10 years, and the area under a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve for both Cox's proportional hazard model and Weibull model.
RESULTS
The average age of study population was 55.5 years in men and 56.3 years in women, respectively. Percentage of men and women in study population were 58.0% and 42.0%, respectively. The study findings satisfied proportionality according to the two models. There was no significant difference in coefficients between the two models of prediction models in men and in women. Moreover, there was no difference in incidence probabilities of stroke and c-statistics. C-statistics were 0.68 for men as same as for women.
CONCLUSION
There was no difference for the prediction of the stroke risk in the Korean population using Cox's proportional hazard model and Weibull model, thus the two models were found to be efficient for this purpose.
Summary

Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health