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COVID-19: Original Article
Parental concerns about COVID-19 vaccine safety and hesitancy in Korea: implications for vaccine communication
Hye-Kyung Cho, Hyunju Lee, Young June Choe, Shinkyeong Kim, Sujin Seo, Jiwon Moon, Eun Hwa Choi, Geun-Yong Kwon, Jee Yeon Shin, Sang-Yoon Choi, Mi Jin Jeong, Myoungsoon You
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023004.   Published online December 13, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023004
  • 4,211 View
  • 137 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Vaccination is one of the most important strategies to contain the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Vaccination in children is dependent on their parents, making it important to understand parents’ awareness and attitudes toward vaccines in order to devise strategies to raise vaccination rates in children.
METHODS
A web-based nationwide survey was conducted among Korean parents of 7-year-old to 18-year-old children in August 2021 to estimate parents’ intention to vaccinate their children against COVID-19 and identify key factors affecting parental acceptance and hesitancy through regression analysis.
RESULTS
Approximately 56.4% (575/1,019) were willing to vaccinate their children against COVID-19. Contributing factors to COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy were being a mother (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.25 to 0.52), a lower education level (aOR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.70 to 0.97), hesitancy to other childhood vaccines (aOR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.96), and refusal to vaccinate themselves (aOR, 0.08; 95% CI, 0.02 to 0.20). Having older children (aOR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.28), trusting the child’s doctor (aOR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.32), positive perceptions of the COVID-19 vaccine’s effectiveness (aOR, 2.60; 95% CI, 1.90 to 3.57) and perceiving the COVID-19 vaccine as low-risk (aOR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.27 to 2.24) were associated with COVID-19 vaccine acceptance. Concerns about adverse reactions were the most common cause of hesitancy.
CONCLUSIONS
Providing parents with accurate and reliable information on vaccine effectiveness and safety is important to increase COVID-19 vaccine uptake in children. Differential or targeted approaches to parents according to gender, age, and their children’s age are necessary for effective communication about vaccination in children.
Summary
Korean summary
부모에게 백신 효과와 안전성에 대한 정확하고 믿을만한 정보를 제공하는 것이 소아 코로나19 백신 접종률을 높이는데 중요하다. 자녀의 백신 접종에 대한 의사소통을 효율적으로 하기 위해서는 부모의 성별과 연령, 자녀의 연령을 고려한 차별적인 접근 방법이 필요하다.
Key Message
To improve COVID-19 vaccine uptake in children, it's crucial to provide parents with reliable and precise information about vaccine safety and effectiveness. Targeted communication strategies that consider factors such as the age of the parents and their children, as well as gender, may be necessary to effectively convey this information.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Safety of BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine in children with chronic kidney disease: a national population study from South Korea
    Young June Choe, Yo-Han Ahn, Eunsun Gwak, Eunseo Jo, Jinseob Kim, Seung-Ah Choe
    Pediatric Nephrology.2024; 39(2): 625.     CrossRef
  • Willingness and hesitancy of parents to vaccinate against COVID-19 their children ages 6 months to 4 years with frail conditions in Italy
    Grazia Miraglia del Giudice, Giorgia Della Polla, Mario Postiglione, Italo Francesco Angelillo
    Frontiers in Public Health.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
COVID-19: Original Article
Changes in eating behaviors according to household income in adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic: findings from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Hye Ah Lee, Ho Jung Lee, Bomi Park, Yoonhee Shin, Hyunjin Park, Hyesook Park
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022102.   Published online November 9, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022102
  • 3,557 View
  • 128 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
To assess social inequalities in changes in dietary behaviors among adolescents during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, we compared changes in dietary behavior indicators by household income.
METHODS
Using cross-sectional data from the 2019 and 2020 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the prevalence of dietary behaviors in adolescents (12-18 years old) was estimated and changes in dietary behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic were evaluated. We assessed changes in dietary behaviors with a household income (as a measure of socioeconomic status, SES) disparity.
RESULTS
During the COVID-19 pandemic, the average consumption of vegetables decreased and food insecurity worsened. Adolescents were more likely to skip breakfast than before COVID-19 (33.1 and 37.4%). Soft drink consumption also increased in 2020 from 2019 (7.6 and 14.8%), especially among boys. Average sugar intake and sodium intake showed a tendency to decrease only in girls, but there was no significant difference according to SES level. Skipping breakfast was particularly evident in the low-SES group, and the difference according to household income level (high vs. low) was greater during COVID-19 than before. The prevalence of soft drink consumption increased significantly in the low-SES group, but the rate of increase did not differ by SES level.
CONCLUSIONS
We found that the social disparity in skipping breakfast was further aggravated during the COVID-19 pandemic. To reach a better understanding of the dietary behaviors of adolescents, continuous monitoring is necessary.
Summary
Korean summary
국민건강영양조사 자료를 활용하여, COVID-19 팬데믹 전후 청소년의 식생활 변화 및 가구소득 수준에 따른 차이를 평가하였다. 대체로, 평균 채소 섭취량은 감소하고 탄산음료 소비는 증가한 것으로 나타났으며, 아침식사 결식율도 약간 증가한 것으로 나타났다. 게다가, 가구소득 수준에 따라 평가하였을 때, 아침식사 결식율 증가는 가구소득이 높은 군에 비해 가구소득 수준이 낮은 군에서 두드러진 것으로 나타났다. COVID-19 팬데믹이 장기화됨에 따라, 청소년의 식생활 변화에 대해서는 지속적인 모니터링이 필요하다.
Key Message
Using data from the 2019 and 2020 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, changes in dietary behaviors of adolescents (12-18 years old) during the COVID-19 pandemic were evaluated. During the COVID-19 pandemic, average consumption of vegetables decreased and consumption of soft drinks increased in 2020 from 2019 (7.6% and 14.8%). In addition, the social disparity in skipping breakfast among adolescents was further aggravated. To reach a better understanding of the dietary behaviors of adolescents, continuous monitoring is necessary.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Analysis of health behavior, mental health, and nutritional status among Korean adolescents before and after COVID-19 outbreak: based on the 2019–2020 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
    Misun Lee, Sarang Jeong, Chong-Su Kim, Yoon Jung Yang
    Journal of Nutrition and Health.2023; 56(6): 667.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Smokeless tobacco consumption and its association with tobacco control factors in the Western Pacific Region: results from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey 2015-2019
Chandrashekhar T. Sreeramareddy, Anusha Manoharan
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022103.   Published online November 8, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022103
  • 2,434 View
  • 89 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
We estimated the prevalence of smokeless tobacco (ST) consumption and its associations with tobacco control factors among school-going youth in 18 Western Pacific Region (WPR) countries.
METHODS
We analyzed school-based Global Youth Tobacco Survey (2014-2019) microdata from 18 WPR countries and estimated weighted prevalence rates of ST consumption, cigarette smoking, and dual use. We used multilevel binary logistic regression to examine the associations of ST consumption and dual use with demographic variables, exposure to pro-tobacco and anti-tobacco factors, national income, and MPOWER indicators.
RESULTS
Data from 58,263 school-going youth were analyzed. The prevalence of past 30-day ST consumption was highest in Kiribati (42.1%), the Marshall Islands (26.1%), Micronesia (21.3%), Palau (16.0%), and Papua New Guinea (15.2%). In adjusted multilevel models, ST consumption and dual use were significantly associated with sex, age, parental smoking, pro-tobacco factors, national income, and MPOWER score. For each unit increase in score for cessation programs, we observed approximately 1.4-fold increases in the odds of youth ST consumption (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15 to 1.66) and dual use (aOR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.16 to 1.86). Similarly, for each unit increase in score for health-related warnings, the odds of both ST consumption (aOR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.42 to 0.53) and dual use (aOR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.30 to 0.42) decreased by approximately 60%.
CONCLUSIONS
The prevalence of youth ST consumption was substantial in the Pacific Islands, exceeding that of cigarette smoking in some countries. Implementing MPOWER measures for ST products could help reduce ST consumption.
Summary
Key Message
The prevalence of smokeless tobacco consumption, and cigarette smoking is considerably high among the school going youth in five pacific island nations of Western Pacific Region. Exposure to pro-tobacco factors and parental smoking were positively associated with youth smokeless tobacco consumption as well as dual use (both smokeless tobacco and cigarettes smoking) Closer monitoring and strict tobacco control policies are needed to prevent further escalation of smokeless tobacco consumption.
Social competence, leisure time activities, and smoking trajectories among adolescent boys: data from the Korean Children & Youth Panel Survey
Eunjung Park, Min Kyung Lim, Jinju Park, Tran Thi Phuong Thao, Sukyung Jeong, Eun Young Park, Jin-Kyoung Oh
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021066.   Published online September 9, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021066
  • 6,088 View
  • 129 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The purpose of this study was to identify the trajectories and potential predictors of tobacco use during adolescence in Korea and to develop appropriate strategies for the implementation of tobacco use prevention programs.
METHODS
The trajectory of tobacco use and associated predictors were analyzed for 1,169 male students from grade 6 (age 11-12) to grade 10 (age 15-16) in the Korean Children & Youth Panel Survey from 2012 to 2016.
RESULTS
Three trajectories of smoking experience were identified: non-smokers (class 1: n=775, 82.3%), temporary users (class 2: n=32, 3.4%), and regular users (class 3: n=135, 14.3%). When compared to non-smokers, temporary users had a higher likelihood of living with a single parent, dissatisfaction with grades, having a girlfriend, having been victimized at least once, and having at least 1 delinquent friend in grade 7 (when smoking experimentation was at its peak). Significant factors associated with regular use included having a girlfriend, committing at least 1 type of delinquent behavior, and being a non-reader. Committing at least 1 type of delinquent behavior and having at least 1 delinquent friend were associated with regular users, distinguishing them from temporary users.
CONCLUSIONS
Understanding why adolescents exhibit different trajectories of tobacco use by identifying the factors associated with each trajectory can contribute to the development of tailored prevention strategies and early cessation programs for adolescents.
Summary
Korean summary
2010-2016년 한국아동청소년패널에 포함된 남학생 흡연경험 분석을 통해 3개의 주요 흡연유형이 확인되었다 (비흡연자 82.3%, 일시 흡연자 3.4%, 지속 흡연자 14.3%). 한부모 가정, 학업성적에 대한 불만족, 이성친구를 사귀는 경우, 또래로부터 괴롭힘을 당한 경험, 1명 이상의 비행 친구가 있는 경우 일시 흡연자가 될 가능성이 높고, 비행 경험이 있는 경우, 이성 친구를 사귀는 경우, 독서를 하지 않는 경우 지속 흡연자가 될 가능성이 높았다. 청소년기 성장단계에 따른 흡연유형의 변화와 관련 요인에 대한 분석 결과는 청소년 대상 맞춤형 흡연예방 및 금연 프로그램 마련에 기여할 수 있을 것이다.
Key Message
In adolescence, significant life changes such as increasing academic workloads and various societal influences combined with growing recognition can affect their interest in trying smoking. The current study suggested that societal influence such as living with a single parent, dissatisfaction with grades, having been victimized at least once, and having at least 1 delinquent friend initiates smoking experimentation. Adolescents having a girlfriend, committing at least 1 type of delinquent behavior, and never reading have a greater possibility of smoking continuation for regular use. These findings might contribute to development of tailored prevention and early cessation programs for adolescents.
Relationship between binge drinking experience and suicide attempts in Korean adolescents: based on the 2013 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey
Kyeong Hyang Byeon, Sun Ha Jee, Jae Woong Sull, Bo Young Choi, Heejin Kimm
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018046.   Published online September 26, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2018046
  • 12,097 View
  • 184 Download
  • 9 Web of Science
  • 12 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Suicide and drinking problems in adolescents are increasing every year, and it is known that suicide is related to drinking. This study aims to identify the relationship between binge drinking experience (BDE) and suicide attempts in Korean adolescents.
METHODS
The Ninth Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBS), conducted in 2013, was used for analysis. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify the relationship between BDE and suicide attempts, and the relationship between BDE and suicide attempts in middle and high school students was stratified by age.
RESULTS
BDE and suicide attempts were highly related. The odds ratio (OR) of attempted suicide in BDE was 1.63 times (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28 to 2.09) higher then non-drinking in males. And the OR of attempted suicide in females was 1.21 times (95% CI, 1.07 to 1.37) higher then non-drinking in non-BDE, 1.79 times (95% CI, 1.47 to 2.19) higher in BDE. BDE was associated with suicide attempts in males aged 12 or 13 years (OR, 3.97; 95% CI, 1.57 to 10.03) and in females aged 15 years (OR, 2.66; 95% CI, 1.79 to 3.96).
CONCLUSIONS
BDE is an important factor related to suicide attempts in adolescents. In order to reduce suicide attempts, it is necessary to educate the youth about the regulation of BDE and drinking prevention.
Summary

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Prevalence and associated factors of binge drinking among high school students in Acapulco, Mexico: a cross-sectional study
    Abel Emigdio-Vargas, Arcadio Morales-Pérez, Elizabeth Nava-Aguilera, Alfonso Dávalos-Martínez, Nubia Blanco-García, Elia Barrera-Rodriguez, Liliana Morales-Nava, Neil Andersson
    Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy.2023; 30(6): 603.     CrossRef
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    Akram Hernández-Vásquez, Rodrigo Vargas-Fernández, Guido Bendezu-Quispe
    Journal of Affective Disorders.2023; 340: 321.     CrossRef
  • Is Binge Drinking Associated with Suicidal Behaviors among Brazilian Adolescents?
    Thaise Queiroz de Melo, Delmilena Maria Ferreira de Aquino, Alisse Maria Chaves de Lima Peixoto, Jonathan Lopes de Lisboa, Raquel Conceição Ferreira, Patricia Maria Pereira de Araújo Zarzar, Viviane Colares, Fabiana de Godoy Bene Bezerra Laureano, Carolin
    Substance Use & Misuse.2022; 57(9): 1365.     CrossRef
  • Disparity between Subjective Health Perception and Lifestyle Practices among Korean Adolescents: A National Representative Sample
    Aniceto Echalico Braza, Jinsoo Jason Kim, Sun Hee Kim
    Journal of Lifestyle Medicine.2022; 12(3): 153.     CrossRef
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    Alessandra Costanza, Stéphane Rothen, Sophia Achab, Gabriel Thorens, Marc Baertschi, Kerstin Weber, Alessandra Canuto, Hélène Richard-Lepouriel, Nader Perroud, Daniele Zullino
    International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction.2021; 19(5): 1729.     CrossRef
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    Soojeong Kim, Jin A Han, Eun-Ji Kim, Soon Young Lee
    Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion.2021; 38(2): 15.     CrossRef
  • Association Between Suicide and Drinking Habits in Adolescents
    Ji Won Lee, Bong-Jo Kim, Cheol-Soon Lee, Boseok Cha, So-Jin Lee, Dongyun Lee, Jiyeong Seo, Young-Ji Lee, Youn-Jung Lee, Eunji Lim, Jae-Won Choi
    Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.2021; 32(4): 161.     CrossRef
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    Ji-Su Kim, Yeji Seo
    Archives of Psychiatric Nursing.2020; 34(1): 27.     CrossRef
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    Soo Jung Rim, Min Geu Lee, Subin Park
    Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.2020; 31(1): 33.     CrossRef
  • Associations between Gender, Alcohol Use and Negative Consequences among Korean College Students: A National Study
    Patrick Allen Rose, Hugh Erik Schuckman, Sarah Soyeon Oh, Eun-Cheol Park
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2020; 17(14): 5192.     CrossRef
  • Prediction models for high risk of suicide in Korean adolescents using machine learning techniques
    Jun Su Jung, Sung Jin Park, Eun Young Kim, Kyoung-Sae Na, Young Jae Kim, Kwang Gi Kim, Vincenzo De Luca
    PLOS ONE.2019; 14(6): e0217639.     CrossRef
  • Association of alcohol and drug use with use of electronic cigarettes and heat-not-burn tobacco products among Korean adolescents
    Yeji Lee, Kang-Sook Lee, Hajo Zeeb
    PLOS ONE.2019; 14(7): e0220241.     CrossRef
Relationship between happiness and tobacco smoking among high school students
Maryam Ataeiasl, Parvin Sarbakhsh, Hossein Dadashzadeh, Christoph Augner, Masoumeh Anbarlouei, Asghar Mohammadpoorasl
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018009.   Published online March 24, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2018009
  • 13,050 View
  • 297 Download
  • 15 Web of Science
  • 14 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Recent research has described negative relationship between happiness and habitual smoking among adolescents. No study of this relationship has been conducted among Iranian adolescents. The aim of the present study was to characterize the relationship between happiness and cigarette or hookah smoking among a sample of high school students.
METHODS
A sample of 1,161 10th-grade students in Tabriz (northwest Iran) was selected by multi-stage proportional cluster sampling. Participants completed a self-administered multiple-choice questionnaire including information on cigarette smoking, hookah smoking, happiness score, substance abuse, self-injury, general risk-taking behavior, attitudes towards smoking, socioeconomic information, and demographic characteristics. An ordinal logistic regression model was used for data analysis.
RESULTS
It was found that 5.9 and 5.0% of students were regular cigarette smokers and regular hookah smokers, respectively. After controlling for potential confounders, higher happiness scores were found to protect students against more advanced stages of cigarette smoking (odds ratio [OR], 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97 to 0.99; p=0.013). However, no significant relationship was found between happiness scores and hookah smoking status (OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.97 to 1.02; p=0.523).
CONCLUSIONS
Happiness scores were associated with less advanced stages of habitual cigarette smoking among high school students. Our findings underscore the necessity of conducting longitudinal or interventional studies aiming to determine the effects of enhancing happiness on preventing the transition through the stages of cigarette and hookah smoking.
Summary

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    Monica Licu, Claudiu G. Ionescu, Maria Suciu, Sorin Păun
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    Rajath Rao, BijayaNanda Naik, Saket Shekhar, SantoshKumar Nirala, CM Singh, Manisha Verma, Anuvarshini Ramalingam
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    Justė Lukoševičiūtė, Gita Argustaitė-Zailskienė, Kastytis Šmigelskas
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Health Statistics
Trends in cigarette smoking among adolescents and adults in South Korea
Sunhye Choi, Yoonjung Kim, Suyeon Park, Jihye Lee, Kyungwon Oh
Epidemiol Health. 2014;36:e2014023.   Published online October 28, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih/e2014023
  • 42,976 View
  • 390 Download
  • 46 Web of Science
  • 42 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
This report is to examine changes in the smoking prevalence among adults and adolescents and provide basic data for national health policies. Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1998 to 2013 and Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey from 2005 to 2013 were used to estimate national adults and adolescents smoking prevalence. In 2013, current cigarette smoking prevalence among male adults and female adults was 42.1% and 6.2%, decreasing by 1.6% points and 1.7% points, respectively compared to 2012. Among adolescents, current cigarette smoking prevalence was 14.4% for male and 4.6% for female students, decreasing by 1.9%points and 1.3%points, respectively compared to 2012. The highest current cigarette smoking prevalence was observed among adults of lower household income or lower education level and among middle and high school students of lower perceived household economic status or lower perceived academic records. Current cigarette smoking prevalence among male adults has decreased since 2011, whereas among female adults, there were no statistically significant annual changes. Among middle and high school students, the prevalence for male students decreased since 2011 and for female students decreased since 2006. But the smoking prevalence did not meet the Health Plan 2020 target.
Summary
Korean summary
국민건강영양조사(1998~2013)와 청소년건강행태온라인조사(2005~2013) 원시자료를 이용하여 분석한 결과, 2013년 현재흡연율은 성인의 경우 남자 42.1%, 여자 6.2%, 중고등학생은 남자 14.4%, 여자 4.6%이었다. 사회경제적요인별로는 성인의 경우 소득수준이 낮을수록, 교육수준이 낮을수록 현재흡연율이 높았고, 중고등학생은 주관적 가정의 경제적 상태가 낮을수록, 주관적 학업성적이 낮을수록 흡연율이 높았다.

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Original Article
The Study on Active and Environmental Tobacco Smoke in Biological Samples among High School Students in Korea .
Sun Ha Jee, Su jung Kim, So young Won, Ho Sang Shin, Chang Su Kim, Hee Ja Kim
Korean J Epidemiol. 2002;24(1):83-92.
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
PURPOSE
The objective of this study was to determine the active and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in biological samples (plasma, saliva and urine) among high school students in Korea.
METHODS
Study samples were from 99 nonsmoker or smoking volunteers from high school in Kyungki-do in 2000. ETS was defined as the having smokers of their family members or their friends. Urinary samples were extracted with ethyl ether at pH 10.5, and the extract was injected in GC-NPD. Plasma or saliva was extracted with methylene chloride at pH 10.5 and the quantification was performed with GC-MS (SIM). Peak shapes and quantitation of nicotine and cotinine were excellent, with linear calibration curves over a wide range of 1 to 3000 ng/mL.
RESULTS
The results are as followings1. The prevalence of smoking among study subjects were 18.2% among males and 6.1% among females. A 69.7% of total subjects among both males and females were exposed at ETS. 2. The primary metabolite cotinine of nicotine was good indicator of ETS exposure in nonsmokers. Salivary cotinine was found to be highly correlated to the concentration of cotinine in plasma (r=0.9480). 3. Urine cotinine was increased among those with smokers in their family members, while salivary or blood cotinine was increased among with smoking friends. 4. Blood cotinine was highly correlated with salivary cotinine, but it was relatively poorly correlated with urine cotinine.
CONCLUSIONS
In conclusion, the results show how the students in high school in Korea suffer from secondhand smoke. It appeared that salivary cotinine was easy to collect and best way to predict the ETS among adolescents
Summary

Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health