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Brief Communication
Association between cardiac arrhythmia before pregnancy and gestational diabetes: a nationwide population-based study in Korea
You-Jung Choi, Won Young Wi, Geum Joon Cho, Jin Oh Na
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023103.   Published online December 4, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023103
  • 1,073 View
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
Given the higher prevalence of cardiac arrhythmias in individuals with diabetes, we investigated the relationship between cardiac arrhythmias and the incidence of gestational diabetes (GDM). This retrospective cohort study utilized data from the Korean Health Insurance Service database, encompassing 1,113,729 women who gave birth between January 2007 and December 2015. After excluding those who did not undergo National Health Screening tests within 1 year prior to pregnancy, those with multifetal pregnancies, and those diagnosed with diabetes, we analyzed 365,880 singleton pregnancies without a history of diabetes. Of these, 3,253 (0.9%) had cardiac arrhythmias, including premature extra beats, supraventricular tachyarrhythmias, and/or atrial flutter/fibrillation. GDM occurred in 31,938 (8.7%) subjects during pregnancy, and was more prevalent in women with cardiac arrhythmia than in those without (14.9 vs. 8.7%, p<0.001). In the multivariate analysis, the association between cardiac arrhythmia and GDM remained statistically significant (adjusted odds ratio, 1.78; 95% confidence interval, 1.61 to 1.97; p<0.001). Subgroup analysis revealed that the risk of GDM was consistently statistically significant in subjects with cardiac arrhythmia, regardless of age, body mass index, and the presence or absence of chronic hypertension. Therefore, cardiac arrhythmias before and during pregnancy appear to be associated with an increased risk of developing GDM.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구에서는 부정맥과 임신성 당뇨병의 발생과의 관계를 확인인하기 위하여 2007년부터 2015년까지 국민건강보험 공단 데이터를 이용하여 분만력을 가진 1,113,729명의 여성을 대상으로 진행되었습니다. 최종 분석은 과거 당뇨병 진단병력을 가지고 있는 환자를 제외하고 365,880건의 단태아 임산부를 포함하였고, 전체 대상자 중 31,938 (8.7%)에서 임신성 당뇨병을 확인하였습니다. 그 중 부정맥 병력이 확인되지 않은 임산부와 비교하였을 때, 부정맥 병력이 있는 경우 임신 기간 중 임신성 당뇨병 발생률이 높았으며 (8.7% vs. 14.9%, p<0.001), 다변량 분석에서도 부정맥과 임신 당뇨병 간의 연관성이 통계적으로 유의미하게 나타났습니다 (adjusted odds ratio, 1.78; 95% confidence interval, 1.61 to 1.97; p<0.001). 따라서, 본 연구는 임신 전후의 부정맥 병력은 임신성 당뇨병 발병 위험 증가와 관련 있음을 시사합니다.
Key Message
This nationwide population-based cross-sectional study using the Korean Health Insurance Service database showed that women with a history of cardiac arrhythmia had an elevated risk of incident GDM during pregnancy. The prevalence of GDM was significantly higher in women with cardiac arrhythmias (8.7% vs. 14.9%). There was a statistically significant association between cardiac arrhythmia and GDM (adjusted odds ratio: 1.78), suggesting that cardiac arrhythmias before and during pregnancy are linked to an increased risk of developing GDM, independent of age, BMI, and chronic hypertension.
Original Articles
Increased risk of cancer and cancer-related mortality in middle-aged Korean women with prediabetes and diabetes: a population-based study
Thi Xuan Mai Tran, Soyeoun Kim, Huiyeon Song, Boyoung Park
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023080.   Published online August 28, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023080
  • 1,093 View
  • 51 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study investigated the risk of developing and dying from all types of cancer, as well as cancer-specific mortality, in women diagnosed with prediabetes and diabetes.
METHODS
We included women aged ≥40 years who underwent cancer screening from 2009 to 2014 with follow-up until 2020. Diabetes status was determined based on fasting plasma glucose levels, self-reported history of diabetes, and the use of antidiabetic medication. We quantified the risk of cancer and mortality in the prediabetes and diabetes groups, relative to the normoglycemia group, by calculating adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs).
RESULTS
The study included 8,309,393 participants with a mean age of 52.7±9.7 years. Among these participants, 522,894 cases of cancer and 193,283 deaths were detected. An increased risk of cancer was observed in both the prediabetes group (aHR, 1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02 to 1.04) and the diabetes group (aHR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.14). The highest risk was identified in those with diabetes who developed liver (aHR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.66 to 1.79), pancreatic (aHR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.60 to 1.76), and gallbladder cancer (aHR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.36 to 1.51). Women with prediabetes and diabetes exhibited a 1.07-fold (95% CI, 1.05 to 1.08) and 1.38-fold (95% CI, 1.36 to 1.41) increased risk of death from cancer, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS
Both prediabetes and diabetes were associated with an elevated risk of cancer, as well as an increased risk of death from cancer, in middle-aged Korean women. However, the degree of risk varied depending on the specific site of the cancer.
Summary
Korean summary
40세 이상의 중년 여성에서 당뇨 또는 당뇨 전 단계는 암 발생 위험과 암으로 인한 사망위험을 증가시킴. 암 종별로는 위암, 대장암, 직장암, 간암, 담낭암, 췌장암, 유방암, 자궁경부암, 자궁암, 신장암, 방광암의 발생 위험이 증가한 반면, 갑상선암의 발생 위험은 감소하였음. 거의 대부분의 암종에서 당뇨는 암으로 인한 사망위험을 증가시킴
Key Message
Both prediabetes and diabetes were independently associated with an overall increased risk of cancer, with a stronger association with malignancies in the liver and pancreas in women. Additionally, both prediabetes and diabetes status are associated with an elevated risk of death from cancer. These findings support the need for prevention and management to reduce cancer-related burden and premature deaths due to cancer, not only in individuals with diabetes but also in those with prediabetes.
Associations between adverse childhood experiences and diabetes among middle-aged and older Chinese: a social-ecological perspective
Siyu Zhu, Leying Hou, Jiaying Ma, Shuting Li, Weidi Sun, Wen Liu, Jiajun Hao, Wenhan Xiao, Siqing Cheng, Dexing Zhang, Dong Zhao, Peige Song
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023071.   Published online August 2, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023071
  • 1,868 View
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study examined the associations between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and diabetes within a social-ecological framework, incorporating personal and environmental unfavorable conditions during childhood from family, school, and community contexts.
METHODS
Data were obtained from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (2014 life history survey and 2015 survey), including 9,179 participants aged ≥45 years. ACEs were collected through self-report questionnaires, and participants were categorized based on the number of distinct ACEs experienced (0, 1, 2, 3, or ≥4 ACEs). Diabetes was defined by biomarkers, self-reported diagnosis, and treatment status. Logistic regression was conducted to explore the associations between ACEs and diabetes. Subgroup analyses were conducted by gender, age, and obesity status.
RESULTS
Compared with participants without ACEs, those exposed to any ACE (odds ratio [OR], 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 1.40), 3 ACEs (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.62) and ≥4 ACEs (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.56) had an increased risk of diabetes. For each additional ACE, the risk of diabetes increased by about 5%. Regarding the source of ACEs, those originating from the family (OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.41) were associated with diabetes. In terms of specific ACE types, family members with substance abuse (OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.52), emotional abuse (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.12 to 1.46), and poor parental relationship (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.43) were associated with diabetes.
CONCLUSIONS
ACEs, particularly those originating from the family, were associated with diabetes. Interventions aimed at preventing and mitigating ACEs are essential for the early prevention of diabetes.
Summary
Key Message
From a social-ecological perspective, this study delineates an association between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), particularly those originating from the family, and diabetes among middle-aged and older Chinese. Interventions aimed at preventing and mitigating ACEs are essential for the early prevention of diabetes.
Effects of multigrain rice and white rice on periodontitis: an analysis using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2012-2015
Seung-Hee Ryu, Zi-lan Wang, Seon-Jip Kim, Hyun-Jae Cho
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023063.   Published online July 3, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023063
  • 2,625 View
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Numerous studies have investigated the efficacy of whole grains; however, research on multigrain remains limited. Grains exhibit combined positive effects against various diseases. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of multigrain and white rice consumption on periodontitis.
METHODS
We analyzed data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V-3 and VI, collected between 2012 and 2015, which included 12,450 patients (4,859 male and 7,591 female) aged 19-64 years. The World Health Organization’s Community Periodontal Index (CPI) was utilized to assess the presence of periodontitis, with periodontitis defined as a CPI index score of ≥3. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed after adjusting for potential confounding variables.
RESULTS
The group that consumed only multigrain rice was less likely to have periodontitis than the group that consumed only white rice (odds ratio [OR], 0.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69 to 0.93). When stratified by sex, the risk of periodontitis demonstrated a 24% decrease in female who consumed only multigrain rice (OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.62 to 0.93). A similar result was observed in the age group of 40-64 years (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.71 to 0.99). In the diabetes stratification model, the normal group that consumed only multigrain rice exhibited a 25% decrease in the odds of periodontitis (OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.62 to 0.91).
CONCLUSIONS
Our findings suggest that the prevalence of periodontitis may vary depending on the type of rice consumed.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구에서는 우리나라의 대규모 자료를 이용하여 쌀 섭취 종류가 치주염 위험에 미치는 영향을 살펴보았다. 우리의 연구 결과는 잡곡밥을 매일 2회 이상 섭취하는 것이 흰쌀밥을 먹는 것보다 치주염 예방에 더 효과적이라는 것을 보여준다. 이러한 결과는 당뇨병이 있는 사람에 비해 건강한 사람, 남성보다는 여성, 40~64세에서 더 큰 예방 효과를 시사한다.
Key Message
In this study, we examined the impact of different types of rice consumption on the risk of periodontitis using large-scale data from Korea. The group that consumed only multigrain rice was less likely to have periodontitis than the group that consumed only white rice (odds ratio [OR]=0.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69–0.93). The risk of periodontitis was reduced by 24% in female who consumed only multigrain rice, 16% decrease in the 40–64 age group, and in the diabetic stratification model, the normal group who consumed only multigrain rice had a 25% decrease in periodontitis risk.
Clinical traits and systemic risks of familial diabetes mellitus according to age of onset and quantity: an analysis of data from the community-based KoGES cohort study
Ju-Yeun Lee, Kyungsik Kim, Sangjun Lee, Woo Ju An, Sue K. Park
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023029.   Published online February 23, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023029
  • 3,357 View
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical trait of familial diabetes mellitus (DM) by analyzing participants’ risk of DM according to the age of DM onset in parents and siblings, and to evaluate individuals’ risk of DM-associated cardiometabolic diseases.
METHODS
Altogether, 211,173 participants aged ≥40 years from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study were included in this study. The participants were divided into groups based on the number (1 or 2 relatives) and age of onset (no DM and early, common, or late onset) of familial DM. Participants’ risk of DM was assessed using a Cox regression model with hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A logistic regression model with odds ratios was used to evaluate associations among the participants’ likelihood of acquiring cardiometabolic diseases such as hypertension, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and cardiovascular disease.
RESULTS
The risk of developing DM was 2.02-fold (95% CI, 1.88 to 2.18) and 2.88-fold (95% CI, 2.50 to 3.33) higher, respectively, in participants with 1 and 2 family members diagnosed with familial DM. It was 2.72-fold (95% CI, 2.03 to 3.66) higher in those with early-onset familial DM. In the early-onset group, the respective risks of hypertension and CKD were 1.87-fold (95% CI, 1.37 to 2.55) and 4.31-fold (95% CI, 2.55 to 7.27) higher than in the control group.
CONCLUSIONS
The risk of DM and related cardiometabolic diseases was positively associated with the number of family members diagnosed with DM and an early diagnosis in family members with DM.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 한국인유전체역학조사사업 역학자료를 이용하여, 당뇨병을 진단받은 가족 구성원 (부모 및 형제)의 수가 많고 당뇨병이 조기에 발생할수록 개인의 당뇨발생 위험도가 높아짐을 보고하였습니다. 또한 당뇨병이 조기에 발생한 가족구성원이 있을 경우 개인의 일부 심대사질환과의 연관성이 있을 수 있음을 설명하였습니다.
Key Message
This study demonstrated that the risk of diabetes in individuals was significantly associated with the quantity and the onset of family members diagnosed with diabetes. We also explained that having a family member with early-onset diabetes can be associated with some cardiometabolic diseases in individuals.
COVID-19: Health Statistics
Changes in the management of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia in Korean adults before and during the COVID-19 pandemic: data from the 2010-2020 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Yoonjung Kim, Suyeon Park, Kyungwon Oh, Hongseok Choi, Eun Kyeong Jeong
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023014.   Published online February 1, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023014
  • 4,079 View
  • 158 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study aimed to analyze the changes in chronic disease management indicators, including hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesteremia, from 2010-2020 and before (2019) and during (2020) the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.
METHODS
This study included 58,504 individuals aged ≥30 years who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2020. Trends in the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of chronic diseases and the difference in those between before and during the COVID-19 pandemic were analyzed using the SAS program PROC SURVEYREG.
RESULTS
From 2010-2020, the awareness, treatment, and control in adults aged ≥30 years for hypertension and hypercholesterolemia continuously improved, whereas no significant change in the management indicators of diabetes mellitus was observed. The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia in men increased from before to during the COVID- 19 pandemic. However, there was no significant change in the management indicators of hypertension and diabetes mellitus in men and women, and the awareness, treatment, and control rates for hypercholesterolemia increased by 5.5%p, 6.9%p, and 4.1%p respectively.
CONCLUSIONS
In 2020, the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic, the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia increased, but the management indicators of the chronic diseases did not significantly deteriorate. Considering the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, it is necessary to monitor changes in chronic disease management indicators and to develop efficient and accessible chronic disease prevention and management programs.
Summary
Korean summary
국민건강영양조사 자료를 분석한 결과 11년간(2010-2020년) 성인의 고혈압, 고콜레스테롤혈증 인지율, 치료율, 치료자 중 조절률은 개선된 반면 당뇨병은 변화가 없었다. 코로나19 유행 전(2019년)·후(2020년) 비교시 남자에서 고혈압, 당뇨병, 고콜레스테롤혈증 유병률이 증가했다. 그러나 고혈압, 당뇨병 관리지표는 변화가 없었고, 고콜레스테롤혈증 관리지표만 개선되었다.
Key Message
The rates of awareness, treatment, and control in adults aged ≥30 years for hypertension and hypercholesterolemia continuously improved, whereas no significant change in the management indicators of diabetes mellitus was observed over the past 11 years (2010-2020). The prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia in men increased from before (2019) to during (2020) the COVID-19 pandemic. However, there was no significant change in the management indicators of hypertension and diabetes mellitus in men and women, and that of hypercholesterolemia improved.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Topic Modeling-Based Analysis of News Keywords Related to Patients with Diabetes during the COVID-19 Pandemic
    Jeong-Won Han, Jung Min Kim, Hanna Lee
    Healthcare.2023; 11(7): 957.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Long-term association of pericardial adipose tissue with incident diabetes and prediabetes: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study
Minsuk Oh, Wonhee Cho, Dong Hoon Lee, Kara M. Whitaker, Pamela J. Schreiner, James G. Terry, Joon Young Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023001.   Published online December 3, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023001
  • 2,807 View
  • 101 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
We examined whether pericardial adipose tissue (PAT) is predictive of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes over time.
METHODS
In total, 2,570 adults without prediabetes/diabetes from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study were followed up over 15 years. PAT volume was measured by computed tomography scans, and the new onset of prediabetes/diabetes was examined 5 years, 10 years, and 15 years after the PAT measurements. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to examine the association between the tertile of PAT and incident prediabetes/diabetes up to 15 years later. The predictive ability of PAT (vs. waist circumference [WC], body mass index [BMI], waist-to-height ratio [WHtR]) for prediabetes/diabetes was examined by comparing the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC).
RESULTS
The highest tertile of PAT was associated with a 1.56 times (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03 to 2.34) higher rate of diabetes than the lowest tertile; however, no association was found between the highest tertile of PAT and prediabetes in the fully adjusted models, including additional adjustment for BMI or WC. In the fully adjusted models, the AUCs of WC, BMI, WHtR, and PAT for predicting diabetes were not significantly different, whereas the AUC of WC for predicting prediabetes was higher than that of PAT.
CONCLUSIONS
PAT may be a significant predictor of hyperglycemia, but this association might depend on the effect of BMI or WC. Additional work is warranted to examine whether novel adiposity indicators can suggest advanced and optimal information to supplement the established diagnosis for prediabetes/diabetes.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 심장 내 축적되는 내장지방과 5년에서 15년 뒤의 당뇨병 전조 단계 및 당뇨병의 발생률과 연관성이 있음을 제안한다. 또한, 본 연구는 심장 내 내장지방과 당뇨병 발생률의 관계는 체질량 지수 또는 허리둘레의 영향에 따라 상이할 수 있음을 제안한다.
Key Message
Pericardial adipose tissue may be a significant predictor of future hyperglycemia in adults, but this association might depend on the effect of body mass index or waist circumference.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus increases the severity of non-fatal injuries, but not the risk of fatal injuries, among driver victims of motor vehicle crashes in Taiwan
I-Lin Hsu, Wen-Hsuan Hou, Ya-Hui Chang, Chung-Yi Li
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022076.   Published online September 16, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022076
  • 3,621 View
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Limited information is available on whether diabetes increases the severity of injuries from motor vehicle crashes (MVCs). This study aimed to investigate the association of type 2 diabetes with injury severity among driver victims of MVCs.
METHODS
This cohort study involved 75,737 adult driver victims with type 2 diabetes from Taiwan’s Police-Reported Traffic Accident Registry in 2015-2017, along with 150,911 sex-, age-, and calendar year-matched controls. The severity level of non- fatal injuries was derived from the International Classification of Diseases Programs for Injury Categorization based on the diagnostic codes of National Health Insurance claims within 3 days after an MVC. Information on fatal injuries within 3 days after an MVC was obtained from the Taiwan Death Registry. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of injury severity in association with type 2 diabetes.
RESULTS
After adjusting for potential confounders, driver victims with type 2 diabetes experienced significantly higher risks of mild and severe non-fatal injuries than their counterparts without diabetes, with covariate-adjusted ORs of 1.08 (95% CI, 1.05 to 1.11) and 1.28 (95% CI, 1.20 to 1.37), respectively. By contrast, the adjusted OR for fatal injuries was not significantly elevated, at 1.02 (95% CI, 0.89 to 1.18). Similar results were found when car and scooter driver victims were analyzed separately.
CONCLUSIONS
Type 2 diabetes was found to moderately increase the severity of non-fatal injuries from MVCs among car and scooter driver victims.
Summary
Key Message
With 75,737 driver victims with diabetes and 150,911 matched controls, this study showed an 8% and 28% increase in mild and severe non-fatal injury, respectively among driver victims with diabetes. Such increase in risk was equally applied to both car and scooter drivers. No increase in risk of 3-day mortality after crash was found.
Associations of fasting glucose and glycated hemoglobin with vitamin D levels according to diabetes mellitus status in Korean adults
Yerin Hwang, Jiyoung Jang, Myung-Hee Shin
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022025.   Published online February 21, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022025
  • 7,475 View
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
According to previous studies, vitamin D deficiency might increase the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). However, few studies have examined whether vitamin D continues to affect glucose control after DM diagnosis. Therefore, we examined the association between vitamin D and glucose levels in individuals with and without DM.
METHODS
We analyzed data for 32,943 adults aged 19 years and older from the 2008 to 2014 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Patients were classified into 3 groups according to the 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration. DM was defined as a fasting glucose level ≥126 mg/dL, current use of DM medications or insulin injections, or a self-reported diagnosis of DM by a doctor.
RESULTS
In male DM patients, the hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level increased significantly as vitamin D levels became severely deficient. In male and postmenopausal female with abnormal HbA1c, those with severe vitamin D deficiency had significantly higher HbA1c levels (p for trend=0.004 and 0.022 for male and postmenopausal female, respectively). Significant differences were found between participants with normal and abnormal HbA1c levels in both male and female. However, regardless of sex or menopausal status, there was no significant association between vitamin D and fasting glucose in any of the fasting glucose subgroups.
CONCLUSIONS
Male and female with abnormal HbA1c levels showed markedly elevated blood glucose when they also had vitamin D deficiency. A more distinct difference was observed in the HbA1c subgroups than in the fasting glucose subgroups.
Summary
Korean summary
당화혈색소 비정상군에서 비타민 D가 부족할수록 혈당의 상승을 보였다. 현재까지 비타민 D와 혈당 조절과 관련하여 한국인을 대상으로 한 연구는 매우 미비한 상황이며, 한국인을 대상으로 한 연구 결과를 반영한 당뇨병 환자들의 혈당 조절 관리 지침 마련이 필요하다.
Key Message
Guidelines are needed for managing glucose control in DM patients that reflect the results of this research performed among Koreans. Additional large-scale longitudinal studies should be conducted to clarify the causal relationships underlying this association.
Dairy product consumption and type 2 diabetes among Korean adults: a prospective cohort study based on the Health Examinees (HEXA) study
Jiaqi Zhang, Kyungjoon Lim, Sangah Shin
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022019.   Published online February 4, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022019
  • 9,098 View
  • 448 Download
  • 6 Web of Science
  • 7 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
It has been suggested that the consumption of dairy products helps lower the prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We investigated the association between the consumption of dairy products and T2D events in middle-aged Korean adults.
METHODS
We followed up 53,288 participants (16,895 male and 36,393 female) in the Health Examinees (HEXA) study. The consumption of dairy products was assessed using the self-administered food frequency questionnaire, and T2D was defined according to the 2015 treatment guidelines of the Korean Diabetes Association. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) between the consumption of dairy products and the risk of T2D were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models after adjusting for potential confounders. Spline regression was used to better represent the association between the consumption of dairy products and the risk of T2D.
RESULTS
Among male, those with higher consumption of dairy products had a significantly lower risk of T2D than those who consumed essentially no dairy products (HR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.91). In particular, consumption of yogurt (HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.93; p<sub>trend</sub>=0.035) and cheese (HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.49 to 0.89; p<sub>trend</sub>=0.005) was negatively associated with the incidence of T2D in male. In female, daily consumption of 1 serving of yogurt decreased the risk of T2D by 11%.
CONCLUSIONS
The association between the consumption of dairy products and the risk of T2D differed by sex and dairy product type. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm these associations.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 한국인유전체역학조사사업의 도시코호트 기반조사와 추적조사에 참여한 40-69세 한국 성인 53 288명의 유제품 섭취와 제2형 당뇨병 발생 위험도를 분석하였다. 요거트와 치즈를 포함한 유제품 섭취가 많을수록 남성의 제2형 당뇨병 위험도가 낮아졌다. 요거트 섭취량을 하루에 한번 증가하면 여성의 제2형 당뇨병 위험도가 감소하다. 유제품 소비와 제2형 당뇨병의 위험도의 연관성은 성별과 유제품에 따라 다르다. 이를 확인하기 위해서는 추가 연구가 필요하다.
Key Message
The study aimed to assess the association between the consumption of dairy products and type 2 diabetes events in Korean adults. Data was from the Health Examinees Study among 53 288 participants. Higher consumption of dairy products including yogurt and cheese was associated with a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes in men. Increasing yogurt intake by one serving/day reduces the risk of type 2 diabetes in women. The association between the consumption of dairy products and the risk of type 2 diabetes differed by gender and dairy product type. Further studies are needed to confirm this.

Citations

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  • Cheese consumption and multiple health outcomes: an umbrella review and updated meta-analysis of prospective studies
    Mingjie Zhang, Xiaocong Dong, Zihui Huang, Xue Li, Yue Zhao, Yingyao Wang, Huilian Zhu, Aiping Fang, Edward L. Giovannucci
    Advances in Nutrition.2023; 14(5): 1170.     CrossRef
  • Effect of Milk and Cultured Milk Products on Type 2 Diabetes: A Global Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies
    Viswanathan Mohan, Kuzhandhaivelu Abirami, Valangaiman Sriram Manasa, Anandakumar Amutha, Balaji Bhavadharini, Rinky Rajput, Nagarajan Lakshmipriya, Chowdary Sruthi, Ranjit Mohan Anjana, Ranjit Unnikrishnan, Vasudevan Sudha, Kamala Krishnaswamy
    Journal of the Indian Institute of Science.2023; 103(1): 167.     CrossRef
  • Probiotic potential of fermented foods and their role in non-communicable diseases management: An understanding through recent clinical evidences
    A. Nithya, Sourav Misra, Chirasmita Panigrahi, Chandrakant Genu Dalbhagat, Hari Niwas Mishra
    Food Chemistry Advances.2023; 3: 100381.     CrossRef
  • Dairy intake and risk of type 2 diabetes: results of a large prospective cohort
    Shunming Zhang, Ge Meng, Qing Zhang, Li Liu, Hongmei Wu, Yeqing Gu, Xuena Wang, Juanjuan Zhang, Shaomei Sun, Xing Wang, Ming Zhou, Qiyu Jia, Kun Song, Yan Borné, Emily Sonestedt, Le Ma, Lu Qi, Kaijun Niu
    Food & Function.2023; 14(21): 9695.     CrossRef
  • Association of milk consumption with management and incidence of hypertension among South Korean adults: A prospective analysis of the health examinees study cohort
    Hyein Jung, Geongu Lee, Kyungjoon Lim, Sangah Shin
    Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases.2022; 32(11): 2515.     CrossRef
  • Association between dairy consumption and the risk of diabetes: A prospective cohort study from the China Health and Nutrition Survey
    Yucheng Yang, Xiaona Na, Yuandi Xi, Menglu Xi, Haibing Yang, Zhihui Li, Ai Zhao
    Frontiers in Nutrition.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Association of dairy consumption patterns with the incidence of type 2 diabetes: Findings from Alberta's Tomorrow Project
    Emad Yuzbashian, Mohammadreza Pakseresht, Jennifer Vena, Catherine B. Chan
    Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases.2022; 32(12): 2760.     CrossRef
The predictive value of resting heart rate in identifying undiagnosed diabetes in Korean adults: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Dong-Hyuk Park, Wonhee Cho, Yong-Ho Lee, Sun Ha Jee, Justin Y. Jeon
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022009.   Published online January 3, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022009
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The purpose of this study was (1) to examine whether the addition of resting heart rate (RHR) to the existing undiagnosed diabetes mellitus (UnDM) prediction model would improve predictability, and (2) to develop and validate UnDM prediction models by using only easily assessable variables such as gender, RHR, age, and waist circumference (WC).
METHODS
Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010, 2012, 2014, 2016 data were used to develop the model (model building set, n=19,675), while the data from 2011, 2013, 2015, 2017 were used to validate the model (validation set, n=19,917). UnDM was defined as a fasting glucose level ≥126 mg/dL or glycated hemoglobin ≥6.5%; however, doctors have not diagnosed it. Statistical package for the social sciences logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of UnDM.
RESULTS
RHR, age, and WC were associated with UnDM. When RHR was added to the existing model, sensitivity was reduced (86 vs. 73%), specificity was increased (49 vs. 65%), and a higher Youden index (35 vs. 38) was expressed. When only gender, RHR, age, and WC were used in the model, a sensitivity, specificity, and Youden index of 70%, 67%, and 37, respectively, were observed.
CONCLUSIONS
Adding RHR to the existing UnDM prediction model improved specificity and the Youden index. Furthermore, when the prediction model only used gender, RHR, age, and WC, the outcomes were not inferior to those of the existing prediction model.
Summary
Korean summary
당뇨병 미인지 또는 미진단은 적절한 치료 시작 시기를 늦추고 당뇨병 합병증 발생의 위험을 높이기 때문에, 각국은 당뇨병 예측 모형을 개발하여 당뇨병을 조기에 예측하고, 치료 시기를 앞당기기 위해 노력하고 있다. 본 연구는 기존의 한국인 당뇨병 예측 모형에 안정시심박수를 추가 변수로 포함시켜, 예측 모형의 성능이 일부개선되는 것을 확인하였고, 더 나아가 나이, 허리 둘레, 그리고 안정시심박수를 포함하여 예측 모형을 개발하고, 그 성능을 확인하였다. 본 연구에서는 간단하게 측정이 가능한 허리 둘레와 안정시심박수 그리고 나이만 포함한 예측 모형이 기존의 예측 모형과 비교해 성능이 열등하지 않은 것을 확인하였다.
Key Message
Higher RHR is associated with increased risk of diabetes. When RHR is added to the Korean undiagnosed diabetes risk score model (Age, Family history of diabetes, Hypertension, Waist circumference, Smoking, Alcohol consumption), the model somewhat increased its predictability of undiagnosed diabetes. Furthermore, the prediction model developed only using age, waist circumference and RHR, which anyone can easily measure or access, had similar predictability to the previous undiagnosed diabetes risk prediction model. The results of this study may help develop future strategies or applications for predicting early undiagnosed diabetes.

Citations

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  • Comparisons of the prediction models for undiagnosed diabetes between machine learning versus traditional statistical methods
    Seong Gyu Choi, Minsuk Oh, Dong–Hyuk Park, Byeongchan Lee, Yong-ho Lee, Sun Ha Jee, Justin Y. Jeon
    Scientific Reports.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Factors related to undiagnosed diabetes in Korean adults: a secondary data analysis
    Bohyun Kim
    Journal of Korean Biological Nursing Science.2023; 25(4): 295.     CrossRef
Effects of early medication treatment and metformin use for cancer prevention in diabetes patients: a nationwide sample cohort study in Korea using extended landmark time analysis
Hwa Jeong Seo, Hyun Sook Oh
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021103.   Published online December 17, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021103
  • 7,297 View
  • 184 Download
  • 4 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study investigated the effectiveness of early medication treatment and metformin use for cancer prevention in type 2 diabetes patients.
METHODS
Population-based cohort data were used from the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort database (KNHIS-NSC) for 2002-2013. Patient-specific medication prescription status was defined by the landmark time (LMT; a fixed time after cohort entry), considering both pre- and post-LMT prescriptions to control methodological biases in observational research. The LMT was set to 2 years. Logistic regression analysis with multivariable adjustment was conducted to analyze cancer incidence by patient-specific medication prescription status.
RESULTS
Only 33.4% of the subjects were prescribed medication early (before the LMT) with compliance. Cancer incidence in individuals with early prescription and compliance was 25% lower (odds ratio [OR], 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67 to 0.84) than in those without. As early-prescribed medications, metformin monotherapy and metformin combination therapy were associated with 34% (OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.51 to 0.83) and 25% (OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.88) lower cancer risk than non-use, respectively. Patients who were prescribed late (post-LMT) but did not comply with the prescription had a 24% (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 0.97 to 1.58) higher cancer incidence than non-users. Among patients who started monotherapy early without changes throughout the entire follow-up period, those who started on metformin had a 37% (OR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.41 to 0.99) lower risk of cancer than non-metformin users.
CONCLUSIONS
Doctors must prescribe antidiabetic medication early, and patient compliance is required, regardless of the prescription time, to prevent cancer. Metformin monotherapy or combination therapy is recommended as an early prescription.
Summary
Korean summary
당뇨 환자는 암 발병 위험이 높으며 암은 주요 사망 원인이다. 당뇨환자의 암발생 예방을 위한 관리로서, 당뇨병 진단 후 약물 치료 시기에 대한 연구는 부족하다. 또한, 전 세계적으로 가장 흔히 처방되는 당뇨병 치료제인 메트포민은 암 예방 효과가 있다고 알려져 왔으나 관측연구에서 발생하는 선택 편향의 문제가 제기되었고, 최근 일부 연구에서 기존의 암 예방 효과와 상충되는 결과가 나오고 있어 논쟁이 이어지고 있다. 본 연구는 선택 편향을 통제한 코호트 연구에서 조기 약물 치료와 메트포민 사용이 당뇨환자의 암 예방에 효과적임을 밝혔다. 따라서 의사들은 처음 당뇨 진단을 받은 환자에게 조기에 약물 처방을 하고, 환자들은 처방에 잘 따라야 한다. 조기 처방 약물로서 메트포민이 권장된다.
Key Message
Diabetic patients have a high risk of developing cancer, and cancer is the leading cause of death. There are few studies on the timing of medication treatment after diagnosis of diabetes. In addition, metformin, the most commonly prescribed diabetes treatment worldwide, is known to have cancer-preventive effects, but the problem of selection bias that occurs in observational studies has been raised, and some studies have recently been contradicting the existing cancer-preventing effects of metformin. This study, in a cohort study controlled for selection bias, demonstrated that early medication treatment and metformin use were effective in preventing cancer in diabetic patients.

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  • Metformin and HER2-positive breast cancer: Mechanisms and therapeutic implications
    Sara S Bashraheel, Hadeel Kheraldine, Sarah Khalaf, Ala-Eddin Al Moustafa
    Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy.2023; 162: 114676.     CrossRef
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Editorial
Spatiotemporal analyses of the epidemiological characteristics of diabetes mellitus
Sang Youl Rhee
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021102.   Published online December 16, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021102
  • 6,539 View
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
Research based on spatiotemporal analysis has been conducted to identify various factors that can affect an individual’s or community’s degree of health and disease. These spatiotemporal studies can effectively illustrate patterns in disease frequency, features, and temporal flow in different parts of a country. Furthermore, identifying these regional characteristics can aid in the development of disease prevention or intervention strategies.
Summary
Korean summary
1. 시공간 분석은 국가 혹은 지역의 질병 빈도, 특징 및 시간 흐름의 패턴을 효과적으로 설명할 수 있다. 2. 시공간 분석은 질병의 예방 또는 중재 전략 개발에 도움이 될 수 있다.
Key Message
1. Spatiotemporal analyses can effectively illustrate patterns in disease frequency, features, and temporal flow in different parts of a country. 2. Spatiotemporal analysis can aid in disease prevention or development of intervention strategies.

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  • Epidemiological characteristics and spatiotemporal analysis of mumps at township level in Wuhan, China, 2005–2019
    Ying Peng, Peng Wang, De-guang Kong, Wen-zhen Li, Dong-ming Wang, Li Cai, Sha Lu, Bin Yu, Bang-hua Chen, Pu-Lin Liu
    Epidemiology and Infection.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
Original Article
Spatiotemporal trends in diabetes-related mortality by school district in the state of Michigan, United States
Nurjannah Nurjannah, Kathleen M. Baker, Duduzile Phindi Mashinini
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021098.   Published online November 9, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021098
  • 8,240 View
  • 122 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study examined the spatiotemporal epidemiological status of diabetes-related death in relation to school district boundaries in the state of Michigan, United States.
METHODS
A retrospective observational study was conducted using death records spanning the years 2007-2014 in Michigan, with school districts as the geographic unit of analysis. Geocoding was performed for each death record. Cluster analysis used spatial autocorrelation with local Moran’s I, and spatiotemporal analysis used the Space Time Pattern Mining tool in ArcGIS Pro 2.1.
RESULTS
The study revealed spatial clusters of high-high locations of diabetes-related mortality rate by school district in Michigan from 2007 to 2014. Spatiotemporal analysis showed grids with intensifying, consecutive, sporadic, and persistent hotspots of diabetes-related death in the Lansing, Royal Oak, Flint City, Berkley, Detroit City, East Lansing, South Lake, and Holt public school districts. These school districts should be prioritized for school-based diabetes prevention programs
CONCLUSIONS
The study demonstrated the presence of various hotspots of diabetes-related deaths within the state of Michigan across the 8-year period of analysis. Understanding spatial and temporal hotspots could further improve our ability to evaluate diabetes burden across both time and space.
Summary
Key Message
Using existing secondary data with spatio-temporal analysis, the study identified diabetes-related death varies across space and time within the state of Michigan, USA at the school district level. This approach provided policy-relevant information to target high-risk school-district when having limited resources to prevent diabetes at schools.

Citations

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  • Spatiotemporal analyses of the epidemiological characteristics of diabetes mellitus
    Sang Youl Rhee
    Epidemiology and Health.2021; 43: e2021102.     CrossRef
Systematic Review
The effect of peer support in diabetes self-management education on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Akhmad Azmiardi, Bhisma Murti, Ratih Puspita Febrinasari, Didik Gunawan Tamtomo
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021090.   Published online October 22, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021090
  • 10,253 View
  • 265 Download
  • 9 Web of Science
  • 14 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Diabetes self-management education (DSME) programs are a strategy to maintain healthy behaviors. Nevertheless, limited evidence has been reported from systematic evaluations of the effects of DSME integrated with peer support on glycemic control. This study aimed to review the effectiveness of DSME interventions integrated with peer support on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes.
METHODS
A systematic search was carried out in electronic databases, including PubMed, Cochrane Library, ProQuest, SpringerLink, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and Google Scholar, for English-language articles published from 2005 until 2020. The effect size was estimated as the standard mean difference (SMD). The Cochrane Collaboration’s Risk of Bias tool was employed to assess the risk of bias.
RESULTS
Twelve studies were included in this study. DSME integrated with peer support effectively reduced glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels, with a statistically significant effect (SMD, -0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.69 to -0.13; p<0.001). Programs with a sample size <100 (SMD, -0.45; 95% CI, -0.79 to -0.11; p=0.009), duration of intervention ≤6 months (SMD, -0.52; 95% CI, -0.96 to -0.07; p=0.020), baseline HbA1c <8.5% (SMD, -0.42; 95% CI, -0.77 to -0.07; p=0.020), delivery by group (SMD, -0.28; 95% CI, -0.51 to -0.06; p=0.010), and high frequency of contact (SMD, -0.29; 95% CI, -0.48 to -0.10; p=0.003) had statistically significant effects on reducing HbA1c levels in patients with type 2 diabetes.
CONCLUSIONS
DSME integrated with peer support effectively enhances glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Programs with smaller participants groups, shorter interventions, weekly meetings, and closer group sessions improved glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Summary
Key Message
We reviewed and assessed the quality of the twelve articles included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The findings of this review show that peer support integrated with diabetes self-management education programs can significantly enhance glycemic control in type 2 diabetes patients. Peer support is a critical component of a successful diabetes self-management programme in patients with type 2 diabetes. interventions programme with smaller groups, shorter durations, lower HbA1c baseline levels, group sessions, and high frequencies of sessions significantly enhanced glycemic control.

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    Hilda M. Okeyo, Martha Biddle, Lovoria B. Williams
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  • The effects of diabetes clubs on peer-support, disclosure of diabetes status, and sources of information regarding diabetes management: results of a pilot-intervention in rural Vietnam
    D.W. Meyrowitsch, N.-A. Thi Dang, T.V. Phong, J. Nielsen, J. Søndergaard, N.D. Cuong, H. Le Minh, T.K.D. Vu, I.C. Bygbjerg, T.M. Gammeltoft, N.D. Thanh
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    Chen Chen, Yuan Zhou, Jia-Yi Xu, Hai-Yan Song, Xu-Wen Yin, Ze-Juan Gu
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  • Prioritizing Patient Experiences in the Management of Diabetes and Its Complications: An Endocrine Society Position Statement
    Rita R Kalyani, Myriam Z Allende-Vigo, Kellie J Antinori-Lent, Kelly L Close, Sandeep R Das, Phyllisa Deroze, Steven V Edelman, Nuha A El Sayed, David Kerr, Joshua J Neumiller, Anna Norton
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Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health