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Special Article
Nutrition survey methods and food composition database update of the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study
Seon-Joo Park, Jieun Lyu, Kyoungho Lee, Hae-Jeung Lee, Hyun-Young Park
Epidemiol Health. 2024;46:e2024042.   Published online April 2, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2024042
  • 1,559 View
  • 84 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
This study presents the nutrition survey methods and the updated food composition database for the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES). The KoGES, which is the largest and longest cohort study in Korea, aims to identify genetic and environmental factors associated with chronic diseases. This study has collected dietary data using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and/or the 24-hour recall method. However, these dietary survey methods use different food composition databases, and their nutritional values are out of date. Therefore, it became necessary to update the food composition database by revising nutrient analysis values to reflect improvements in the performance of food ingredient analysis equipment, revising international values to analysis values of Korean agricultural products, adjusting nutrient units, and adding newly reported nutrients related to chronic diseases. For this purpose, we integrated the different food composition databases used in each nutrition survey, updated 23 nutrients, and expanded 48 new nutrients for 3,648 food items using the latest reliable food composition databases published by national and international institutions. This revised food composition database may help to clarify the relationship between various nutrients and chronic diseases. It could serve as a valuable resource for nutritional, epidemiological, and genomic research and provide a basis for determining public health policies.
Summary
Korean summary
한국인유전체역학조사사업은 우리나라에서 가장 크고 오래된 코호트로 만성질환과 영양과의 관련성을 밝히기 위하여 사용되고 있다. 이 논문에서는 영양조사에 대한 자세한 방법론과 현재 공개하고 있는 23개 영양소의 업데이트 및 48개 새로운 영양소의 확대에 대한 내용을 소개하였다. 이러한 개선을 통해 KoGES 영양 데이터의 활용도가 더욱 높아질 것으로 기대된다.
Key Message
The Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES) is the largest and longest-running cohort study in South Korea aimed at identifying the relationship between chronic diseases and nutrient intake. This paper provides a detailed methods of the nutritional surveys and introduces updates to the existing 23 nutrients and the addition of 48 new nutrients. These enhancements are expected to significantly increase the utility of the KoGES nutritional data.
COVID-19: Original Article
Public holidays increased the transmission of COVID-19 in Japan, 2020-2021: a mathematical modelling study
Jiaying Qiao, Hiroshi Nishiura
Epidemiol Health. 2024;46:e2024025.   Published online January 22, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2024025
  • 2,305 View
  • 170 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Although the role of specific holidays in modifying transmission dynamics of infectious diseases has received some research attention, the epidemiological impact of public holidays on the transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains unclear.
METHODS
To assess the extent of increased transmission frequency during public holidays, we collected COVID-19 incidence and mobility data in Hokkaido, Tokyo, Aichi, and Osaka from February 15, 2020 to September 30, 2021. Models linking the estimated effective reproduction number (Rt) with raw or adjusted mobility, public holidays, and the state of emergency declaration were developed. The best-fit model included public holidays as an essential input variable, and was used to calculate counterfactuals of Rt in the absence of holidays.
RESULTS
During public holidays, on average, Rt increased by 5.71%, 3.19%, 4.84%, and 24.82% in Hokkaido, Tokyo, Aichi, and Osaka, respectively, resulting in a total increase of 580 (95% confidence interval [CI], 213 to 954), 2,209 (95% CI, 1,230 to 3,201), 1,086 (95% CI, 478 to 1,686), and 5,211 (95% CI, 4,554 to 5,867) cases that were attributable to the impact of public holidays.
CONCLUSIONS
Public holidays intensified the transmission of COVID-19, highlighting the importance of considering public holidays in designing appropriate public health and social measures in the future.
Summary
Key Message
• The number of COVID-19 cases increased during public holidays in Japan. • The increase may have occurred because of elevated mobility rate and altered contact behaviours. • The effect of holidays varied by prefecture in Japan.
Special Article
Identification of acute myocardial infarction and stroke events using the National Health Insurance Service database in Korea
Minsung Cho, Hyeok-Hee Lee, Jang-Hyun Baek, Kyu Sun Yum, Min Kim, Jang-Whan Bae, Seung-Jun Lee, Byeong-Keuk Kim, Young Ah Kim, JiHyun Yang, Dong Wook Kim, Young Dae Kim, Haeyong Pak, Kyung Won Kim, Sohee Park, Seng Chan You, Hokyou Lee, Hyeon Chang Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2024;46:e2024001.   Published online December 26, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2024001
  • 5,640 View
  • 119 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The escalating burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a critical public health issue worldwide. CVD, especially acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and stroke, is the leading contributor to morbidity and mortality in Korea. We aimed to develop algorithms for identifying AMI and stroke events from the National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) database and validate these algorithms through medical record review.
METHODS
We first established a concept and definition of “hospitalization episode,” taking into account the unique features of health claims-based NHIS database. We then developed first and recurrent event identification algorithms, separately for AMI and stroke, to determine whether each hospitalization episode represents a true incident case of AMI or stroke. Finally, we assessed our algorithms’ accuracy by calculating their positive predictive values (PPVs) based on medical records of algorithm-identified events.
RESULTS
We developed identification algorithms for both AMI and stroke. To validate them, we conducted retrospective review of medical records for 3,140 algorithm-identified events (1,399 AMI and 1,741 stroke events) across 24 hospitals throughout Korea. The overall PPVs for the first and recurrent AMI events were around 92% and 78%, respectively, while those for the first and recurrent stroke events were around 88% and 81%, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS
We successfully developed algorithms for identifying AMI and stroke events. The algorithms demonstrated high accuracy, with PPVs of approximately 90% for first events and 80% for recurrent events. These findings indicate that our algorithms hold promise as an instrumental tool for the consistent and reliable production of national CVD statistics in Korea.
Summary
Key Message
In this study, we developed algorithms to identify acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and stroke events from the Korean National Health insurance Service database. To validate them, we conducted retrospective review of medical records across 24 hospitals throughout Korea. The overall positive predictive values for the first and recurrent AMI events were around 92% and 78%, respectively, while those for the first and recurrent stroke events were around 88% and 81%, respectively.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Incidence and case fatality rates of stroke in Korea, 2011-2020
    Jenny Moon, Yeeun Seo, Hyeok-Hee Lee, Hokyou Lee, Fumie Kaneko, Sojung Shin, Eunji Kim, Kyu Sun Yum, Young Dae Kim, Jang-Hyun Baek, Hyeon Chang Kim
    Epidemiology and Health.2023; : e2024003.     CrossRef
COVID-19: Cohort Profile
Cohort profile: investigating SARS-CoV-2 infection and the health and psychosocial impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in the Canadian CHILD Cohort
Rilwan Azeez, Larisa Lotoski, Aimée Dubeau, Natalie Rodriguez, Myrtha E. Reyna, Tyler Freitas, Stephanie Goguen, Maria Medeleanu, Geoffrey L. Winsor, Fiona S. L. Brinkman, Emily E. Cameron, Leslie Roos, Elinor Simons, Theo J. Moraes, Piush J. Mandhane, Stuart E. Turvey, Shelly Bolotin, Kim Wright, Deborah McNeil, David M. Patrick, Jared Bullard, Marc-André Langlois, Corey R. Arnold, Yannick Galipeau, Martin Pelchat, Natasha Doucas, Padmaja Subbarao, Meghan B. Azad
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023091.   Published online October 13, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023091
  • 5,840 View
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected all Canadian families, with some impacted differently than others. Our study aims to: (1) determine the prevalence and transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection among Canadian families, (2) identify predictors of infection susceptibility and severity of SARS-CoV-2, and (3) identify health and psychosocial impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study builds upon the CHILD Cohort Study, an ongoing multi-ethnic general population prospective cohort consisting of 3,454 Canadian families with children born in Vancouver, Edmonton, Manitoba, and Toronto between 2009 and 2012. During the pandemic, CHILD households were invited to participate in the CHILD COVID-19 Add-On Study involving: (1) brief biweekly surveys about COVID-19 symptoms and testing; (2) quarterly questionnaires assessing COVID-19 exposure and testing, vaccination status, physical and mental health, and pandemic-driven life changes; and (3) in-home biological sampling kits to collect blood and stool. In total, 1,462 households (5,378 participants) consented to the CHILD COVID-19 Add-On Study: 2,803 children (mean±standard deviation [SD], 9.0±2.7 years; range, 0-17 years) and 2,576 adults (mean±SD, 43.0±6.5 years; range, 18-85 years). We will leverage the wealth of pre-pandemic CHILD data to identify risk and resilience factors for susceptibility and severity to the direct and indirect pandemic effects. Our short-term findings will inform key stakeholders and knowledge users to shape current and future pandemic responses. Additionally, this study provides a unique resource to study the long-term impacts of the pandemic as the CHILD Cohort Study continues.
Summary
Key Message
· This study of 1,462 Canadian families (5,378 individuals) leverages a decade of extensive pre-pandemic CHILD Cohort Study data to identify risk and resilience factors for susceptibility to the direct and indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. · Our short-term findings will inform key stakeholders and knowledge users to shape current and future pandemic responses. · This study provides a unique resource to study the long-term impacts of the pandemic as the CHILD Cohort Study continues.
Original Article
Regional disparities in major cancer incidence in Korea, 1999-2018
Eun Hye Park, Mee Joo Kang, Kyu-Won Jung, Eun Hye Park, E Hwa Yun, Hye-Jin Kim, Hyun-Joo Kong, Chang Kyun Choi, Jeong-Soo Im, Hong Gwan Seo, The Community of Population-Based Regional Cancer Registries
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023089.   Published online October 12, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023089
  • 3,232 View
  • 139 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study investigated regional disparities in the incidence of 8 major cancers at the municipal level in Korea during 1999-2018 and evaluated the presence or absence of hot spots of cancer clusters during 2014-2018.
METHODS
The Korea National Cancer Incidence Database was used. Age-standardized incidence rates were calculated by gender and region at the municipal level for 4 periods of 5 years and 8 cancer types. Regional disparities were calculated as both absolute and relative measures. The possibility of clusters was examined using global Moran’s I with a spatial weight matrix based on adjacency or distance.
RESULTS
Regional disparities varied depending on cancer type and gender during the 20-year study period. For men, the regional disparities of stomach, colon and rectum, lung, and liver cancer declined, and those of thyroid and prostate cancer recently decreased, despite an overall increasing incidence. For women, regional disparities in stomach, colon and rectum, lung, liver, and cervical cancer declined, that of thyroid cancer recently decreased, despite an overall increasing incidence, and that of breast cancer steadily increased. In 2014-2018, breast cancer (I, 0.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.53 to 0.70) showed a high probability of cancer clusters in women, and liver cancer (I, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.40 to 0.56) showed a high probability of cancer clusters in men.
CONCLUSIONS
Disparities in cancer incidence that were not seen at the national level were discovered at the municipal level. These results could provide important directions for planning and implementing local cancer policies.
Summary
Korean summary
이 연구는 한국 시군구 단위에서 지난 20년(1999-2018)간 주요 8개 암 발생률의 지역 간 격차를 조사하고, 최근 5년(2014-2018)의 암 발생 군집 가능성을 평가했습니다. 지역 간 격차는 여성에서 갑상선암, 남성에서는 폐암이 가장 큰 격차를 보였습니다. 군집 가능성은 여성의 경우 유방암, 남성의 경우 간암에서 가장 높았습니다. 전국 단위에서는 볼 수 없었던 지역 간 격차 및 군집 발생 가능성이 시군구 단위에서 발견되었고, 이러한 결과는 지역에 맞는 암 정책을 기획하고 실행하는 데 중요한 방향을 제시할 수 있을 것입니다.
Key Message
This study investigated regional disparities in the incidence of eight major cancers in Korea at the municipal level during 1999-2018 and assessed the possibility of cancer clusters during 2014-2018. Thyroid cancer in women and lung cancer in men showed the most significant regional disparities. Breast cancer in women and liver cancer in men displayed the highest possibility of clustering. Regional disparities and cancer clusters were identified locally, which were not detected nationally. These findings could provide valuable guidance for developing and implementing cancer policies that are tailored to local needs.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Hormone Replacement Therapy and Risks of Various Cancers in Postmenopausal Women with De Novo or a History of Endometriosis
    Hee Joong Lee, Banghyun Lee, Hangseok Choi, Minkyung Lee, Kyungjin Lee, Tae Kyoung Lee, Sung Ook Hwang, Yong Beom Kim
    Cancers.2024; 16(4): 809.     CrossRef
  • What is the relationship between the local population change and cancer incidence in patients with dyslipidemia: Evidence of the impact of local extinction in Korea
    Wonjeong Jeong, Dong‐Woo Choi, Woorim Kim, Kyu‐Tae Han
    Cancer Medicine.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
Cohort Profile
Epidemiologic Questionnaire (EPI-Q) – a scalable, app-based health survey linked to electronic health record and genotype data
Maxwell Salvatore, Dylan Clark-Boucher, Lars G. Fritsche, Jacob Ortlieb, Janet Houghtby, Anisa Driscoll, Bryanne Caldwell-Larkins, Jennifer A. Smith, Chad M. Brummett, Sachin Kheterpal, Lynda Lisabeth, Bhramar Mukherjee
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023074.   Published online August 8, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023074
  • 2,499 View
  • 72 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
The Epidemiologic Questionnaire (EPI-Q) was established to collect broad, uniform, self-reported health data to supplement electronic health record (EHR) and genotype information from participants in the University of Michigan (UM) Precision Health cohorts. Recruitment of EPI-Q participants, who were already enrolled in 1 of 3 ongoing UM Precision Health cohorts—the Michigan Genomics Initiative, Mental Health Biobank, and Metabolism, Endocrinology, and Diabetes cohorts—began in March 2020. Of 54,043 retrospective invitations, 5,577 individuals enrolled, representing a 10.3% response rate. Of these, 3,502 (63.7%) were female, and the average age was 56.1 years (standard deviation, 15.4). The baseline survey comprises 11 modules on topics including personal and family health history, lifestyle, and cancer screening and history. Additionally, 11 optional modules cover topics including financial toxicity, occupational exposure, and life meaning. The questions are based on standardized and validated instruments used in other cohorts, and we share resources to expedite development of similar surveys. Data are collected via the MyDataHelps platform, which enables current and future participants to share non-Michigan Medicine EHR data. Recruitment is ongoing. Cohort data are available to those with institutional review board approval; for details, contact the Data Office for Clinical and Translational Research (DataOffice@umich.edu).
Summary
Key Message
The Epidemiologic Questionnaire (EPI-Q) is an app-based, scalable health survey that collects broad, self-reported data to augment an electronic health record-linked biobank – the Michigan Genomics Initiative. Of an initial 54,043 invitations (recruitment is ongoing), 5,577 participants enrolled (10.3% response rate) and were invited to complete 11 baseline modules (including personal and family health history, lifestyle, and cancer screening and history) and 11 optional modules (including financial toxicity, occupational exposure, and life meaning). Questions are based on standardized and validated instruments used in other cohort studies and documentation is shared publicly to accelerate development of similar surveys.
Special Article
The Korea National Disability Registration System
Miso Kim, Wonyoung Jung, So Young Kim, Jong Hyock Park, Dong Wook Shin
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023053.   Published online May 11, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023053
  • 7,676 View
  • 252 Download
  • 13 Web of Science
  • 12 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
The Korea National Disability Registration System (KNDRS) was established in 1989 to provide social welfare benefits based on predefined criteria for disability registration and an objective medical assessment using a disability grading system. Disability registration requires (1) a medical examination by a qualified specialist physician and (2) a medical advisory meeting to review the degree of disability. Medical institutions and specialists for the diagnosis of disabilities are legally stipulated, and medical records for a specified period are required to support the diagnosis. The number of disability types has gradually expanded, and 15 disability types have been legally defined. As of 2021, 2.645 million people were registered as disabled, accounting for approximately 5.1% of the total population. Among the 15 disability types, disabilities of the extremities account for the largest proportion (45.1%). Previous studies have investigated the epidemiology of disabilities using data from the KNDRS, combined predominantly with data from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). Korea has a mandatory public health insurance system that covers the entire Korean population, and the National Health Insurance Services manages all eligibility information, including disability types and severity ratings. In short, the KNDRS-NHIRD is a significant data resource for research on the epidemiology of disabilities.
Summary
Korean summary
한국에서는 장애의 유형과 장애 유형별 장애정도를 장애인 복지법에서 규정하고 있다. 우리는 한국의 장애등록제도의 역사와 장애등록절차 그리고 장애유형별 통계 현황에 대해서 다루고자 한다.
Key Message
In Korea, the types and severity levels of disabilities are legally defined by the Korea National Disability Registration System (KNDRS). We address the history of the KNDRS, disability registration procedures, and current statistics.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The link between disability and social participation revisited: Heterogeneity by type of social participation and by socioeconomic status
    Jinho Kim, Gum-Ryeong Park, Eun Ha Namkung
    Disability and Health Journal.2024; 17(2): 101543.     CrossRef
  • Increased Risk of Dementia Following a Diagnosis of Hearing Impairment: A South Korean Nationwide Cohort Study
    Minah Park, Sung-In Jang, Kyungduk Hurh, Eun-Cheol Park, Seung Hoon Kim
    Journal of Alzheimer's Disease.2024; 97(2): 679.     CrossRef
  • Risk of fracture among patients with spinal cord injury: A nationwide cohort study in South Korea
    Seonghye Kim, Bongseong Kim, Kyung-Do Han, Junhee Park, Jung Eun Yoo, Hea Lim Choi, Won Hyuk Chang, In Young Cho, Dong Wook Shin
    Bone.2024; 183: 117093.     CrossRef
  • Desafios para inclusão de escolares com deficiência em um estado do brasileiro
    Paola Regina Martins Bruno, Graziane Pacini Rodrigues, Damarys Paula Alves Alvim, Francisco Winter dos Santos Figueiredo, Janeisi de Lima Meira, Andreia de Bem Machado, Gabriel Martins Cabral, Fernando Rodrigues Peixoto Quaresma
    Cuadernos de Educación y Desarrollo.2024; 16(4): e3840.     CrossRef
  • Korean autistic persons facing systemic stigmatization from middle education schools: daily survival on the edge as a puppet
    Wn-ho Yoon, JaeKyung Seo, Cheolung Je
    Frontiers in Psychiatry.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Disability acceptance and depressive symptoms: the moderating role of social support
    Gum-Ryeong Park, Sujeong Park, Jinho Kim
    Disability and Rehabilitation.2024; : 1.     CrossRef
  • Impact of a Service-Learning Program Using Soccer Training on the Emotional and Behavioral Problems of Children with Developmental Disabilities
    Huan Meng, Yonghwan Kim, Kyujin Lee
    Children.2024; 11(4): 467.     CrossRef
  • Risk of Heart Disease in Patients With Amputation: A Nationwide Cohort Study in South Korea
    Hea Lim Choi, Jung Eun Yoo, Miso Kim, Bongsung Kim, Junhee Park, Won Hyuk Chang, Heesun Lee, Kyungdo Han, Dong Wook Shin
    Journal of the American Heart Association.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Fracture Risk Among Stroke Survivors According to Poststroke Disability Status and Stroke Type
    Dagyeong Lee, In Young Cho, Won Hyuk Chang, Jung Eun Yoo, Hea Lim Choi, Junhee Park, Dong Wook Shin, Kyungdo Han
    Stroke.2024; 55(6): 1498.     CrossRef
  • Disparities in the diagnosis and treatment of colorectal cancer among patients with disabilities
    Ki Bae Kim, Dong Wook Shin, Kyoung Eun Yeob, So Young Kim, Joung-Ho Han, Seon Mee Park, Jong Heon Park, Jong Hyock Park
    World Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology.2024; 16(7): 2925.     CrossRef
  • Increased Risk of Fracture after Traumatic Amputation: A Nationwide Retrospective Cohort Study
    Hyeonjin Cho, Junhee Park, Bongseong Kim, Kyungdo Han, Hea Lim Choi, Dong Wook Shin
    Healthcare.2024; 12(13): 1362.     CrossRef
  • Increased risk of Parkinson's disease amongst patients with age‐related macular degeneration and visual disability: A nationwide cohort study
    Je Moon Yoon, Dong Hui Lim, Jinyoung Youn, Kyungdo Han, Bong Sung Kim, Wonyoung Jung, Yohwan Yeo, Dong Wook Shin, Don‐Il Ham
    European Journal of Neurology.2023; 30(9): 2641.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease mortality trends in Spain, 1980-2020
Lucia Cayuela, José Luis López-Campos, Anna Michela Gaeta, Rocio Reinoso-Arija, Aurelio Cayuela
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023036.   Published online March 18, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023036
  • 3,897 View
  • 125 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
In Spain, there has been a recent increase in the mortality rate for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in younger women. This study aimed to analyze trends in the COPD mortality rate in Spain from 1980 to 2020, evaluating any differences between genders and age groups.
METHODS
Death certificates and mid-year population data were obtained from the Spanish National Institute of Statistics. For both genders, age group-specific and standardized (overall and truncated) rates were calculated by the direct method using the world standard population. The data were analyzed using the joinpoint regression method.
RESULTS
In both men and women, the number of COPD deaths increased from 1980 to 1999 (average annual increase of 7% in men and 4% in women), while from 1999 onwards, deaths decreased by -1.0% per year in both genders. In women, there was a significant final period of increase in the 55-59 to 70-74 age groups and a slowing of the decline in the over 75 age group. Additionally, an increase in mortality for the truncated rates was observed for women between 2006 and 2020. In men under 70 years of age, there was an initial period in which death rates remained stable or significantly increased, followed by a period in which they decreased significantly.
CONCLUSIONS
Our study shows age and gender differences in COPD mortality trends in Spain. Although the data show a downward trend, we have identified a worrying increase in the truncated rates in women for the last few years.
Summary
Key Message
Currently, mortality trends for COPD in Spain shows age and gender differences. Although the data show an overall downward trend, we have identified a worrying increase in the truncated rates in women for the last few years. This could be representing the beginning of an epidemic increase in mortality from COPD in women. Consequently, strategies should be strengthened and promoted to prevent smoking in all its forms in the general population, as well as encourage proper cessation treatments.
Perceived usefulness of COVID-19 tools for contact tracing among contact tracers in Korea
Seonyeong Gong, Jong Youn Moon, Jaehun Jung
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022106.   Published online November 15, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022106
  • 4,151 View
  • 91 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
In Korea, contact tracing for coronavirus disease 2019 is conducted using information from credit card records, handwritten visitor logs, KI-Pass (QR code), and the Safe Call system after an interview. We investigated the usefulness of these tools for contact tracing.
METHODS
An anonymous survey was conducted for 2 months (July to September 2021) among contact tracers throughout Korea. The questionnaire consisted of 4 parts: (1) demographic characteristics; (2) the usefulness of each tool for contact tracing; (3) the order in which information was checked during contact tracing; and (4) the match rate between tools for contact tracing, screening test rate, response rate, and helpfulness (rated on a Likert scale).
RESULTS
In total, 190 individuals completed the survey. When asked to rate the usefulness of each tool for contact tracing on a Likert scale, most respondents (86.3%) provided positive responses for credit card records, while the most common responses for handwritten visitor logs were negative. The highest percentage of positive responses for helpfulness was found for KI-Pass (91.1%), followed in descending order by credit card records (82.6%), Safe Call (78.2%), and handwritten visitor logs (22.1%).
CONCLUSIONS
Over 80% of participants provided positive responses for credit card records, KI-Pass, and Safe Call data, while approximately 50% provided negative responses regarding the usefulness of handwritten visitor logs. Our findings highlight the need to unify systems for post-interview contact tracing to increase their convenience for contact tracers, as well as the need to improve tools utilizing handwritten visitor logs for digitally vulnerable groups.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 국내 역학조사 담당자들을 대상으로 시행한 설문조사를 중심으로 면담조사 후 추가적으로 실시하는 다양한 접촉자 추적 방법의 유용성에 대한 분석을 목표로 한다. 응답자 중 약 80% 이상이 카드결제기록, KI-Pass, GPS 및 CCTV 정보의 유용성에 대해 긍정적으로 응답하였다. 반면 약 50%는 수기명부의 유용성에 대해 부정적으로 응답하였다. 본 연구의 결과는 역학조사관과 사용자 모두의 편의를 위해 역학조사 방법의 일원화가 필요할 뿐만 아니라 디지털 취약 계층을 위해 수기명부를 대체할 수 있는 시스템의 필요성을 시사한다.
Key Message
We conducted an anonymous online survey to assess the usefulness of tools for contact tracing for COVID-19 in Korea. Over 80% of participants provided positive responses regarding the usefulness of credit card records, KI-Pass, and Safe Call data, while approximately 50% provided negative responses regarding the usefulness of handwritten visitor logs. Our findings highlight the need to unify contact tracing systems to increase their convenience for contact tracers.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Uncovering COVID-19 transmission tree: identifying traced and untraced infections in an infection network
    Hyunwoo Lee, Hayoung Choi, Hyojung Lee, Sunmi Lee, Changhoon Kim
    Frontiers in Public Health.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
COVID-19: Epidemiologic Investigation
Analysis of the on-ship transmission of the COVID-19 mass outbreak on the Republic of Korea Navy amphibious warfare ship
Soo Hyeon Cho, Young-Man Kim, Gyeongyong Seong, Sunkyun Park, Seoncheol Park, Sang-Eun Lee, Young Joon Park
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022065.   Published online August 11, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022065
  • 8,424 View
  • 438 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This investigation was conducted to determine the size and pattern, source, and transmission route of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak on the Republic of Korea Navy (ROKN) amphibious warfare ship.
METHODS
We investigated the characteristics of all crew members and tracked the medical records of the confirmed cases. Fourteen essential ship operation personnel were interviewed. The study design was a retrospective cohort study, and the incidence rate ratio was through a statistical program.
RESULTS
The COVID-19 incidence on the ROKN amphibious warfare ship was 44.7% (38/85). It was estimated that the main propagation route started from the 1st floor worker, which spread to the same floor, and then to other floors. In the case of the working area, the incidence rate of crew members below the 1st floor without ventilation was higher than those on the 2nd or higher floors with natural ventilation.
CONCLUSIONS
This case is the first case of a COVID-19 outbreak on the ROKN amphibious warfare ship, and it is estimated that the incidence rate is high because of the closed and dense environment. To prevent the spread of various respiratory diseases including COVID-19, unified mitigation such as vaccination, observing personal quarantine rules, periodic ventilation, preemptive testing, and blocking transmission through prompt contact management is necessary.
Summary
Korean summary
본 조사는 국내 첫 해군 상륙함 내 코로나19 집단발생의 규모 및 양상, 감염원과 전파경로를 규명하기 위해 수행되었다. 해군 상륙함에서의 발생률은 44.7%였으며 자연 환기가 가능한 2층 이상 근무자에 비해 환기가 불가능한 1층 이하 근무자의 발생률이 높았고 이는 통계적으로 유의했다. 밀폐된 환경에서 밀접한 생활을 하는 해군 상륙함의 특성을 고려하여 개인방역수칙 준수, 주기적 환기, 선제적 검사, 신속한 접촉자 관리 등을 통한 전파 차단이 필요할 것으로 판단된다.
Key Message
This investigation was conducted to determine the size and pattern of the outbreak of the COVID-19 infection, the source of infection and the transmission route on the ROK Navy Amphibious Warfare ship. The incidence on ROKN Amphibious Warfare ship was 44.7% (38/85) and the incidence rate of crew members below the first floor without ventilation was higher than those on the second floor or higher with natural ventilation. To prevent various respiratory diseases including COVID-19, unified mitigation such as vaccination, observing personal quarantine rules, periodic ventilation, preemptive testing, and blocking transmission through prompt contact management is necessary.

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  • Indoor Air Quality and COVID-19: A Scoping Review
    Axelle Braggion, Adeline Dugerdil, Olwen Wilson, Francesca Hovagemyan, Antoine Flahault
    Public Health Reviews.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
Review
Epidemiology of myocardial infarction in Korea: hospitalization incidence, prevalence, and mortality
Rock Bum Kim, Jang-Rak Kim, Jin Yong Hwang
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022057.   Published online July 12, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022057
  • 11,412 View
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  • 13 Web of Science
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
Few studies have comprehensively presented epidemiological indicators of myocardial infarction in Korea. However, multiple published articles and open-source secondary data on the epidemiology of myocardial infarction are now available. This review summarized the hospitalization incidence, prevalence, and mortality rate of myocardial infarction in Korea using articles and open-source data from the Health Insurance Service and the Department of Statistics, surveys of sample populations, registries of patients, and other sources. The epidemiological indicators of myocardial infarction were compared between Korea and other high-income countries. The incidence of hospitalization due to myocardial infarction in Korea was 43.2 cases per 100,000 population in 2016 and has consistently increased since 2011. It was 2.4 times higher among men than among women. The estimated prevalence among adults over 30 years of age ranged from 0.34% to 0.70% in 2020; it was higher among men and increased with age. The mortality in 2020, which was 19.3 per 100,000 population in 2020, remained relatively stable in recent years. Mortality was higher among men than among women. Based on representative inpatient registry data, the proportion of ST-elevated myocardial infarction decreased until recently, and the median time from symptom onset to hospital arrival was approximately 2 hours and 30 minutes. The hospitalization incidence, prevalence, and mortality rate of myocardial infarction were lower in Korea than in other countries, although there was an increasing trend. Comprehensive national-level support and surveillance systems are needed to routinely collect accurate epidemiological indicators.
Summary
Korean summary
○우리나라의 심근경색증 발생률은 2016년 기준 인구 10만명 당 43.2명으로 추정되며 2011년 이후 증가하고 있음. ○ 30세 이상 인구에서 심근경색증 유병률은 0.34% (건강보험청구데이터) 또는 1.0% (국민건강영양조사)로 추정됨. ○ 전체인구에서 심근경색증으로 인한 사망률은 2019년 인구 10만명 당 18.8명으로 최근 큰 변화가 없거나 약간 감소하는 추세임.
Key Message
This review article showed the hospitalized incidence, prevalence, mortality, and features on patient registry of myocardial infarction in Korea from published articles and opened data sources.

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    Dongwon Yoon, Ha-Lim Jeon, Ju Hwan Kim, Hyesung Lee, Ju-Young Shin
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    Sung-Jin Hong
    Journal of Cardiovascular Intervention.2024; 3(2): 62.     CrossRef
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    Ho-Min Yoon, Seung-Jae Joo, Ki Young Boo, Jae-Geun Lee, Joon-Hyouk Choi, Song-Yi Kim, So Young Lee, Niema M. Pahlevan
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    Jang-Whan Bae
    The Korean Journal of Medicine.2024; 99(2): 57.     CrossRef
  • Prognostic Implications of N-Terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide in Patients With Non-ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction
    Chang Hoon Kim, Seung Hun Lee, Hyun Kuk Kim, Min Chul Kim, Ju Han Kim, Young Joon Hong, Young Keun Ahn, Myung Ho Jeong, Seung Ho Hur, Doo Il Kim, Kiyuk Chang, Hun Sik Park, Jang-Whan Bae, Jin-Ok Jeong, Yong Hwan Park, Kyeong Ho Yun, Chang-Hwan Yoon, Yisik
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    Ki-Hong Kim, Jae-Young Han
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    Shin Ahn, Eunsil Ko, Young Sun Ro
    Clinical and Experimental Emergency Medicine.2023; 10(S): S42.     CrossRef
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    Hyun Ho Yoo, Young Sun Ro, Eunsil Ko, Jin-Hee Lee, So-hyun Han, Taerim Kim, Tae Gun Shin, Seongjung Kim, Hansol Chang
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Original Articles
Effect modification of consecutive high concentration days on the association between fine particulate matter and mortality: a multi-city study in Korea
Hyungryul Lim, Sanghyuk Bae, Jonghyuk Choi, Kyung-Hwa Choi, Hyun-Joo Bae, Soontae Kim, Mina Ha, Ho-Jang Kwon
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022052.   Published online June 9, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022052
  • 8,127 View
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Although there is substantial evidence for the short-term effect of fine particulate matter (PM<sub>2.5</sub>) on daily mortality, few epidemiological studies have explored the effect of prolonged continuous exposure to high concentrations of PM<sub>2.5</sub>. This study investigated how the magnitude of the mortality effect of PM<sub>2.5</sub> exposure is modified by persistent exposure to high PM<sub>2.5</sub> concentrations.
METHODS
We analyzed data on the daily mortality count, simulated daily PM<sub>2.5</sub> level, mean daily temperature, and relative humidity level from 7 metropolitan cities from 2006 to 2019. Generalized additive models (GAMs) with quasi-Poisson distribution and random-effects meta-analyses were used to pool city-specific effects. To investigate the effect modification of continuous exposure to prolonged high concentrations, we applied categorical consecutive-day variables to the GAMs as effect modification terms for PM<sub>2.5</sub>.
RESULTS
The mortality risk increased by 0.33% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.16 to 0.50), 0.47% (95% CI, -0.09 to 1.04), and 0.26% (95% CI, -0.08 to 0.60) for all-cause, respiratory, and cardiovascular diseases, respectively, with a 10 μg/m3 increase in PM<sub>2.5</sub> concentration. The risk of all-cause mortality per 10 μg/m3 increase in PM<sub>2.5</sub> on the first and fourth consecutive days significantly increased by 0.63% (95% CI, 0.20 to 1.06) and 0.36% (95% CI, 0.01 to 0.70), respectively.
CONCLUSIONS
We found increased risks of all-cause, respiratory, and cardiovascular mortality related to daily PM<sub>2.5</sub> exposure on the day when exposure to high PM<sub>2.5</sub> concentrations began and when exposure persisted for more than 4 days with concentrations of ≥35 μg/m3. Persistently high PM<sub>2.5</sub> exposure had a stronger effect on seniors.
Summary
Korean summary
한국의 7개 대도시를 배경으로 수행한 본 시계열 연구를 통하여 2006년부터 2019년까지의 기간 동안에 초미세먼지의 단기 노출이 일별 사망률을 증가시키며, 교호작용모형을 통해 일평균 35 μg/m3 이상의 고농도 지속기간이 처음 시작되는 날과 넷째 지속일에 이러한 사망효과가 커짐을 보고하였다. 이러한 고농도 지속기간의 교호작용은 65세 이상 연령군에서 더욱 두드러졌다.
Key Message
With our Korean multi-city study design from 2006 to 2019, the short-term effects of PM2.5 on mortality were greater when the high PM2.5 concentration duration began during the day and lasted for approximately 4 days, and the elderly may be more affected by persistently high PM2.5.
Gender differences in under-reporting hiring discrimination in Korea: a machine learning approach
Jaehong Yoon, Ji-Hwan Kim, Yeonseung Chung, Jinsu Park, Glorian Sorensen, Seung-Sup Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021099.   Published online November 17, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021099
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study was conducted to examine gender differences in under-reporting hiring discrimination by building a prediction model for workers who responded “not applicable (NA)” to a question about hiring discrimination despite being eligible to answer.
METHODS
Using data from 3,576 wage workers in the seventh wave (2004) of the Korea Labor and Income Panel Study, we trained and tested 9 machine learning algorithms using “yes” or “no” responses regarding the lifetime experience of hiring discrimination. We then applied the best-performing model to estimate the prevalence of experiencing hiring discrimination among those who answered “NA.” Under-reporting of hiring discrimination was calculated by comparing the prevalence of hiring discrimination between the “yes” or “no” group and the “NA” group.
RESULTS
Based on the predictions from the random forest model, we found that 58.8% of the “NA” group were predicted to have experienced hiring discrimination, while 19.7% of the “yes” or “no” group reported hiring discrimination. Among the “NA” group, the predicted prevalence of hiring discrimination for men and women was 45.3% and 84.8%, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS
This study introduces a methodological strategy for epidemiologic studies to address the under-reporting of discrimination by applying machine learning algorithms.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 한국노동패널조사(7차년도)에 포함된 3576명의 임금근로자의 자료를 이용해 성별에 따른 구직 과정 경험한 차별에 대한 과소보고의 규모를 확인하고자 하였다. 질문에 “예” 또는 “아니요”라고 응답한 임금근로자 3479명 데이터를 이용하여 고용 시 차별경험을 예측하는 머신러닝 모형을 구축하였고, 이를 활용해 이미 직장에서 일하고 있는 상태임에도 “해당사항 없음”이라고 응답한 임금근로자 97명이 차별을 경험했는지 여부를 예측하였다. 분석결과, “해당사항 없음”이라고 답한남성 근로자 64명 중 29명(45.3%), 여성 근로자 33명 중 28명(84.8%)가 실제로 차별을 경험한 것으로 추정되었다.
Key Message
We examined gender differences in under-reporting hiring discrimination for wage workers who responded “not applicable(NA)” to a question about hiring discrimination despite being eligible to answer “yes” or “no.” Using data from 3,576 wage workers of the Korea Labor and Income Panel Study, we estimated the prevalence of hiring discrimination among those who answered “NA,” based on the best-performing machine learning prediction model for “yes” or “no” group. Among the “NA” group, the predicted prevalence of hiring discrimination for men and women was 45.3% and 84.8%, respectively.
Joint association of aerobic physical activity and muscle-strengthening activities with metabolic syndrome : the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2014-2015
Jungjun Lim, Soyoung Park, Joon-Sik Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021096.   Published online November 6, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021096
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  • 153 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The study aimed to examine whether simultaneously meeting the combined guidelines of accelerometer-assessed moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and self-reported muscle-strengthening activity (MSA) was associated with lower odds of metabolic syndrome (MetS) than meeting neither or 1 of the guidelines among the Koreans.
METHODS
This cross-sectional analysis included 1,355 participants from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2014-2015). Logistic regression was used to analyze the associations across groups of MVPA-MSA guideline adherence (meeting neither [reference]; meeting MVPA only; meeting MSA only; meeting both MVPS and MSA) with MetS components (abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], hypertension, and hyperglycemia). The odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for covariates (e.g., sex, age, body mass index, and accelerometer wearing time).
RESULTS
MSA only significantly reduced the OR for abdominal obesity (OR, 0.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.13 to 0.91). Meeting both MVPA and MSA reduced the OR for hypertriglyceridemia (OR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.39 to 0.88) and low HDL-C (OR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.68). Compared to meeting neither, MVPA only (OR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.44 to 0.89) and both MVPA and MSA (OR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.28 to 0.76) significantly reduced the OR for MetS.
CONCLUSIONS
Combined MVPA-MSA was more beneficially associated with MetS prevalence than MVPA only and MSA only. Considering that more than 85% of Korean adults do not meet both the MVPA and MSA guidelines, public health actions to promote adherence should be supported.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 2014-2015 국민건강영양조사 자료의 가속도계 자료와 신체활동 설문지를 활용하여 한국 성인의 유산소 신체활동과 근력강화운동 지침 충족 여부에 따른 대사증후군의 오즈비를 확인하였다. 그 결과, 유산소 신체활동과 근력강화운동 지침을 모두 충족한 한국 성인은 둘 중 하나의 지침만을 충족하거나, 모두 충족하지 않는 성인에 비해 더 낮은 오즈비를 나타내었다.
Key Message
In this study, the 2014-2015 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, the odds ratio of metabolic syndrome was confirmed according to the guidelines for aerobic physical activities and muscle-strengthening activities were met in Korean adults. As a result, Korean adults who met both the guidelines for aerobic physical activity and muscle-strengthening activities showed a lower odds ratio than adults who met only one of the guidelines or did not meet both guidelines.

Citations

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  • Association Between Frequency of Muscle-Strengthening Exercise and Depression Symptoms Among Middle and High School Students: Cross-Sectional Survey Study
    Hao Wang, Huaidong Du, Yunqi Guan, Jieming Zhong, Na Li, Jin Pan, Min Yu
    JMIR Public Health and Surveillance.2024; 10: e50996.     CrossRef
  • The effect of Tabata-style functional high-intensity interval training on cardiometabolic health and physical activity in female university students
    Yining Lu, Huw D. Wiltshire, Julien Steven Baker, Qiaojun Wang, Shanshan Ying
    Frontiers in Physiology.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Association of Aerobic and Muscle-strengthening Activities with AIP in Korean Adults: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2014-2019
    Jungjun Lim, Yang Hei, Yeonsoo Kim
    Journal of Korean Association of Physical Education and Sport for Girls and Women.2022; 36(3): 245.     CrossRef
  • Current status of health promotion in Korea
    Soo Young Kim
    Journal of the Korean Medical Association.2022; 65(12): 776.     CrossRef
  • Aerobic or Muscle-Strengthening Physical Activity: Which Is Better for Health?
    Angelique G. Brellenthin, Jason A. Bennie, Duck-chul Lee
    Current Sports Medicine Reports.2022; 21(8): 272.     CrossRef
Epidemiology and treatment status of hepatitis C virus infection among people who have ever injected drugs in Korea: a prospective multicenter cohort study from 2007 to 2019 in comparison with non-PWID
Kyung-Ah Kim, Gwang Hyun Choi, Eun Sun Jang, Young Seok Kim, Youn Jae Lee, In Hee Kim, Sung Bum Cho, Moran Ki, Hwa Young Choi, Dahye Paik, Sook-Hyang Jeong
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021077.   Published online October 6, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021077
  • 9,666 View
  • 255 Download
  • 2 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Injection drug use is a major risk factor for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection; however, limited data on this topic are available in Korea. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics, treatment uptake, and outcomes of HCV infection among people who inject drugs (PWID).
METHODS
We used the data from the Korea HCV cohort, which prospectively enrolled patients with HCV infection between 2007 and 2019. Clinical data and results of a questionnaire survey on lifetime risk factors for HCV infection were analyzed according to a self-reported history of injection drug use (PWID vs. non-PWID group).
RESULTS
Among the 2,468 patients, 166 (6.7%) were in the PWID group, which contained younger patients (50.6±8.2 vs. 58.2±13.1 years) and a higher proportion of male (81.9 vs. 48.8%) than the non-PWID group. The distribution of PWID showed significant regional variations. Exposure to other risk factors for HCV infection was different between the groups. The proportion of patients with genotype non-2 infection was higher in the PWID group. Treatment uptake was higher in the PWID group in the interferon era; however, it was comparable between the groups in the direct-acting antiviral era. The rate of sustained virological response did not significantly differ between the groups.
CONCLUSIONS
As of 2019, PWID constituted a minority of HCV-infected people in Korea. The epidemiological characteristics, but not treatment uptake and outcomes, were different between the PWID and non-PWID groups. Therefore, active HCV screening and treatment should be offered to PWID in Korea.
Summary
Korean summary
1. 국내 C형간염 환자 중 정맥주사 사용자의 비율은 6.7%로 서구에 비하면 낮은 편이며, 지역별로 차이가 있다. 2. C형간염 환자 중 정맥주사 사용자는 비사용자에 비하여 연령, 성별 및 C형간염 위험 요인 노출 등에서 상이한 역학적 특성을 보인다. 3. 정맥주사 사용자의 C형간염 치료 수용률이나 치료 성공률은 비사용자와 비슷하다.
Key Message
As of 2019, PWID comprised a minority (6.7%) of all HCV-infected people in South Korea. The epidemiological features of the PWID group were different from those of the non-PWID group in terms of age, sex and exposure to risk factors of HCV infection. However, the treatment uptake and outcomes were not significantly different between these 2 groups in DAA era. Therefore, considering the global and national increase in the number of PWID and the contribution of PWID to new cases of HCV infection, active screening and treatment should be offered to PWID in Korea.

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  • Prevalence and factors associated with hepatitis C among pregnant women in China: a cross-sectional study
    Sun He, Gao Shuang, Wu Yinglan, Wang Lan, Wang Wei, Wang Ailing, Wang Changhe, Wang Xiaoyan, Gao Qun, Lu Zechun, Huang Dongxu, Wang Yu, Mo Phoenix Kit Han, Chen Zhongdan, Polin Chan, Wang Qian
    Scientific Reports.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Hepatitis C Virus Seroprevalence in Persons Who Inject Drugs in Korea, 2012–2022: A Multicenter, Retrospective Study
    Jihye Kim, Gwang Hyeon Choi, Og-Jin Jang, Younghoon Chon, Sung Nam Cho, Dohoon Kwon, Sook-Hyang Jeong
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef

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