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Original Articles
Estimated trends in hospitalizations due to occupational injuries in Korea based on the Korean National Hospital Discharge In-depth Injury Survey (2006-2019)
Seong-Uk Baek, Won-Tae Lee, Min-Seok Kim, Myeong-Hun Lim, Jin-Ha Yoon
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023042.   Published online April 5, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023042
  • 2,896 View
  • 128 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
In recent years, occupational injuries have sparked a huge social and political debate. Thus, in this study, we focused on the characteristics and trends of occupational injuries requiring hospitalization in Korea.
METHODS
The Korea National Hospital Discharge In-depth Injury Survey was designed to estimate the annual number and characteristics of all injury-related hospitalizations in Korea. The annual number of hospitalizations due to occupational injuries and the age-standardized rates (ASRs) were estimated from 2006 to 2019. The annual percentage change (APC) and average annual percentage change (AAPC) of ASRs and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using joinpoint regression. All analyses were stratified by gender.
RESULTS
In men, the APC of the ASRs of all-cause occupational injuries was -3.1% (95% CI, -4.5 to -1.7) in 2006-2015. However, a non-significant upward trend was observed after 2015 (APC, 3.3%; 95% CI, -1.6 to 8.5). In women, the APC of all-cause occupational injuries was -8.6% (95% CI, -12.1 to -5.1) in 2006-2012. However, a non-significant upward trend was observed after 2012 (APC, 2.1%; 95% CI, -0.9 to 5.2). A recent upward trend in stabbing injuries was observed after 2012 (APC, 4.7%; 95% CI, -1.8 to 11.8) in women. A non-significant overall increasing trend was also observed for occupational injuries caused by exposure to extreme temperatures (AAPC, 3.7%; 95% CI, -1.1 to 8.7) in women.
CONCLUSIONS
A recent upward trend in all-cause injury hospitalizations and hospitalizations caused by stabbing injuries was observed. Therefore, active policy interventions are required to prevent occupational injuries.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 퇴원환자 심층조사를 사용하여 2006년부터 2019년까지 우리나라에서 발생한 업무상 손상의 추세를 연령표준화발생률을 구함으로써 분석하였다. 남녀 모두에서 2010년대 초반 까지는 발생률이 유의하게 감소하는 추세를 보였지만, 2013-2015년 이후부터는 통계적으로 유의하지 않은 점진적 상승 추세가 관찰되었다. 이러한 연구 결과는 업무상 손상을 예방하기 위해 적극적인 정책적 개입이 필요하다는 것을 시사한다.
Key Message
This study analyzed the trends in work-related injury occurrences in South Korea from 2006 to 2019 based on a nationally representative, repeated cross-sectional dataset. Age-standardized rates were calculated and their annual trend was estimated using a JointPoint regression. While both males and females exhibited a significant decline in occupational injury rates until the early 2010s, a non-significant but gradual upward trend has been observed since 2013-2015. These findings underscore the need for active policy interventions to prevent work.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus increases the severity of non-fatal injuries, but not the risk of fatal injuries, among driver victims of motor vehicle crashes in Taiwan
I-Lin Hsu, Wen-Hsuan Hou, Ya-Hui Chang, Chung-Yi Li
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022076.   Published online September 16, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022076
  • 3,614 View
  • 108 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Limited information is available on whether diabetes increases the severity of injuries from motor vehicle crashes (MVCs). This study aimed to investigate the association of type 2 diabetes with injury severity among driver victims of MVCs.
METHODS
This cohort study involved 75,737 adult driver victims with type 2 diabetes from Taiwan’s Police-Reported Traffic Accident Registry in 2015-2017, along with 150,911 sex-, age-, and calendar year-matched controls. The severity level of non- fatal injuries was derived from the International Classification of Diseases Programs for Injury Categorization based on the diagnostic codes of National Health Insurance claims within 3 days after an MVC. Information on fatal injuries within 3 days after an MVC was obtained from the Taiwan Death Registry. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of injury severity in association with type 2 diabetes.
RESULTS
After adjusting for potential confounders, driver victims with type 2 diabetes experienced significantly higher risks of mild and severe non-fatal injuries than their counterparts without diabetes, with covariate-adjusted ORs of 1.08 (95% CI, 1.05 to 1.11) and 1.28 (95% CI, 1.20 to 1.37), respectively. By contrast, the adjusted OR for fatal injuries was not significantly elevated, at 1.02 (95% CI, 0.89 to 1.18). Similar results were found when car and scooter driver victims were analyzed separately.
CONCLUSIONS
Type 2 diabetes was found to moderately increase the severity of non-fatal injuries from MVCs among car and scooter driver victims.
Summary
Key Message
With 75,737 driver victims with diabetes and 150,911 matched controls, this study showed an 8% and 28% increase in mild and severe non-fatal injury, respectively among driver victims with diabetes. Such increase in risk was equally applied to both car and scooter drivers. No increase in risk of 3-day mortality after crash was found.
Data Profile
Data resource profile: the Korea National Hospital Discharge In-depth Injury Survey
Yeon-Kyeng Lee, Sung Ok Hong, Soo-Jung Park, Mijin Park, Kyunghae Wang, Mini Jo, Jeongah Oh, Sin Ae Lee, Hyeon Ju Lee, Jungeun Oh, Dosang Lim, Sanghui Kweon, Youngtaek Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021052.   Published online August 17, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021052
  • 7,947 View
  • 110 Download
  • 5 Web of Science
  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
The Korea National Hospital Discharge In-depth Injury Survey (KNHDIS), which was started in 2005, is a national probability survey of general hospitals in Korea with 100 or more beds conducted by the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency (KDCA). The KNHDIS captures approximately 9% of discharged cases from sampled hospitals using a 2-stage stratified cluster sampling scheme, among which 13% are injury related cases, defined as S00-T98 (injury, poisoning, and certain other consequences of external causes) using International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision codes. The KNHDIS collects information on characteristics of injury-related discharges in order to understand the scale of injuries, identify risk factors, and provide data supporting prevention policies and intervention strategies. The types of data captured include the hospitals’ information, detailed clinical information, and injury-related codes such as the mechanism, activities undertaken when injured (sports, leisure activities, work, treatment, and education), external causes of the injury, and location of the occurrence of the injury based on the International Classification of External Causes of Injuries. Furthermore, the means of transportation, risk factors for suicide, and toxic substances are recoreded. Annual reports of the KNHDIS are publicly accessible to browse via the KDCA website (http://www.kdca.go.kr) and microdata are available free of charge upon request via email (kcdcinjury@korea.kr).
Summary
Korean summary
퇴원손상심층조사는 손상발생 규모 및 손상 퇴원환자의 발생 추이를 파악하고자 2005년 도입된국가 단위 통계를 산출하는 표본 조사 사업이다. 본 연구는 퇴원손상심층조사의 표본설계, 조사방법, 조사항목과 함께 그간의 조사결과의 활용도 등 성과에 대해 살펴보았다. 조사결과는 국가 손상예방관리를 위한 기초자료로 활용되고 있으며, 조사 원자료는 공개하고 있다.
Key Message
The Korea National Hospital Discharge In-depth Injury Survey (KNHDIS), started in 2005, is a national probability survey of general hospitals in Korea with 100 or more beds conducted by the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency. The KNHDIS collects information on characteristics of injury-related discharges to understand the scale of injuries, identify risk factors, and provide data supporting prevention policies. The data captured including the hospitals’ information, and injury-related codes based on the International Classification of External Causes of Injuries. Annual reports of the KNHDIS are publicly accessible from KDCA website and microdata are available upon request via email.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Predictive model for early functional outcomes following acute care after traumatic brain injuries: A machine learning-based development and validation study
    Meng Zhang, Moning Guo, Zihao Wang, Haimin Liu, Xue Bai, Shengnan Cui, Xiaopeng Guo, Lu Gao, Lingling Gao, Aimin Liao, Bing Xing, Yi Wang
    Injury.2023; 54(3): 896.     CrossRef
  • Area-Level Socioeconomic Inequalities in Intracranial Injury-Related Hospitalization in Korea: A Retrospective Analysis of Data From Korea National Hospital Discharge Survey 2008–2015
    Hang A Park, Federico E. Vaca, Kyunghee Jung-Choi, Hyesook Park, Ju Ok Park
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Comorbidity Patterns and Management in Inpatients with Endocrine Diseases by Age Groups in South Korea: Nationwide Data
    Sung-Soo Kim, Hun-Sung Kim
    Journal of Personalized Medicine.2023; 14(1): 42.     CrossRef
  • Estimated trends in hospitalizations due to occupational injuries in Korea based on the Korean National Hospital Discharge In-depth Injury Survey (2006-2019)
    Seong-Uk Baek, Won-Tae Lee, Min-Seok Kim, Myeong-Hun Lim, Jin-Ha Yoon
    Epidemiology and Health.2023; 45: e2023042.     CrossRef
  • The Association between Comorbidities and Comorbid Injuries on Treatment Outcome in Pediatric and Elderly Patients with Injuries in Korea: An Observational Study
    Kyunghee Lee, Jieun Hwang
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(10): 6277.     CrossRef
Original Article
Main results of the Korea National Hospital Discharge In-depth Injury Survey, 2004-2016
Sung Ok Hong, Boae Kim, Joongho Jo, Yunhyung Kwon, Yeon-Kyeng Lee, Youngtaek Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2020;42:e2020044.   Published online June 20, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020044
  • 10,403 View
  • 149 Download
  • 7 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence of injuries and to identify their causes by classifying injuries according to various categories including age, sex, mechanism of injury, body parts injured, and place of injury.
METHODS
This study used data from the Korea National Hospital Discharge In-depth Injury Survey (KNHDIS) from 2004 to 2016. The KNHDIS is conducted annually by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and its survey population includes all hospitalized patients discharged from medical institutions that have 100 or more beds, such as hospitals, general hospitals, and secondary community health centers. The number of injured cases is weighted and estimated using the mid-year estimated population of each year.
RESULTS
The injury discharge rate steadily increased since 2004 (1,505 per 100,000 population in 2004, 2,007 per 100,000 population in 2016) and most injuries were unintentional (annual average of 94.7%). On average, during the 13-year study period, the injury rate for males was 1.5 times as high as for females. The 2 main causes of injury were consistently traffic accidents and falls. Notably, the rate of injuries resulting from falls rose by 1.7-fold from 463 to 792 per 100,000 people, and exceeded the rate of traffic accidents in 2016.
CONCLUSIONS
The incidence of injuries steadily increased after the survey was first conducted, whereas mortality resulting from injuries mostly remained unchanged. This suggests that effective strategies and interventions should be reinforced to reduce unintentional injuries.
Summary
Korean summary
질병관리본부가 2005년부터 구축하여 운영 중에 있는 퇴원손상심층조사의 연도별 조사자료를 분석한 결과 10만명당 손상발생규모는 2004년 1,505명에서 2016년 2,007명으로 지속적으로 증가하였다. 이러한 꾸준한 증가 추세는, 손상으로 인한 사망률은 감소하였을지라도 손상 예방을 위한 효과적인 정책과 전략, 지속적인 모니터링이 필요성을 제시한다.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The Impact of the Association between Cancer and Diabetes Mellitus on Mortality
    Sung-Soo Kim, Hun-Sung Kim
    Journal of Personalized Medicine.2022; 12(7): 1099.     CrossRef
  • Comparison of Prediction Models for Mortality Related to Injuries from Road Traffic Accidents after Correcting for Undersampling
    Yookyung Boo, Youngjin Choi
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2021; 18(11): 5604.     CrossRef
Brief Communication
Evaluation report on the causal association between humidifier disinfectants and lung injury
Mina Ha, Soon Young Lee, Seung-sik Hwang, Hyesook Park, Seungsoo Sheen, Hae Kwan Cheong, Bo Youl Choi
Epidemiol Health. 2016;38:e2016037.   Published online August 18, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2016037
  • 20,810 View
  • 513 Download
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
As of November 2011, the Korean government recalled and banned humidifier disinfectants (HDs) from the market, because four case-control studies and one retrospective epidemiological study proved the association between HDs and lung injury of unknown cause. The report reviewed the causal role of HDs in lung injury based on scientific evidences.
METHODS
A careful examination on the association between the HDs and lung injury was based on the criteria of causality inference by Hill and the US Surgeon General Expert Committee.
RESULTS
We found that all the evidences on the causality fulfilled the criteria (strength of association, consistency, specificity, temporality, biologic gradient, plausibility, coherence, experiment, analogy, consideration of alternative explanations, and cessation of exposure), which proved the unknown cause lung injury reported in 2011 was caused by the HDs. In particular, there was no single reported case of lung injury since the ban in selling HDs in November 2011 as well as before the HDs were sold in markets.
CONCLUSIONS
Although only a few epidemiological studies in Korea have evaluated the association between lung injury and the use of HDs, those studies contributed to proving the strong association between the use of the HDs and lung injury, based on scientific evidence.
Summary
Korean summary
본 논문에서는 Hill의 기준과 US Surgeon General 전문위원회에서 제시하는 기준에 근거하여 가습기살균제와 폐손상과의 인과성을 검토하였다. 검토결과, 11개 조건(관련성의 강도, 일관성, 특이성, 시간적 선후관계, 생물학적 용량-반응 관계, 개연성, 기존 지식과의 일치성, 실험, 유사성, 다른 가능한 해석에 대한 고려 및 노출의 중단) 을 모두 충족함을 확인하므로 써, 2011년 발생한 원인미상 폐손상의 원인이 가습기살균제 노출로 인한 것임을 알 수 있었다. 무엇보다도 가습기살균제 시판 전에는 원인미상 폐손상이 보고된 바가 없었고, 2011년 11월 가습기살균제 판매중지 이후 폐손상이 한 건도 발생하지 않은 것은 원인미상의 폐손상이 가습기살균제로 인한 것임을 강력하게 지지하는 것으로 판단된다.

Citations

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  • New-Onset and Exacerbation of Lung Diseases after Short-Term Exposures to Humidifier Disinfectant during Hospitalization
    Seula Lee, Kyunghee Han, Jeonggyo Yoon, Eun-Kyung Jo, Wonho Yang, Yoon-Hyeong Choi
    Toxics.2022; 10(7): 371.     CrossRef
  • Characterizing Subjects Exposed to Humidifier Disinfectants Using Computed-Tomography-Based Latent Traits: A Deep Learning Approach
    Frank Li, Jiwoong Choi, Xuan Zhang, Prathish K. Rajaraman, Chang-Hyun Lee, Hongseok Ko, Kum-Ju Chae, Eun-Kee Park, Alejandro P. Comellas, Eric A. Hoffman, Ching-Long Lin
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(19): 11894.     CrossRef
  • Physical analysis reveals distinct responses of human bronchial epithelial cells to guanidine and isothiazolinone biocides
    Tae Yoon Kwon, Jaeseong Jeong, Eunyoung Park, Youngbin Cho, Dongyoung Lim, Ung Hyun Ko, Jennifer H. Shin, Jinhee Choi
    Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology.2021; 424: 115589.     CrossRef
  • Need for individual-based evaluation to determine the association between humidifier disinfectants and health injuries
    Hyeong-Cheol Kim, Hyunil Kim, Eun-Chan Mun, Yesung Lee, Soyoung Park
    Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Strength of Association. Report 1. Graduations of Relative Risk
    А. Котеров, A. Koterov, Л. Ушенкова, L. Ushenkova, Э. Зубенкова, E. Zubenkova, А. Вайнсон, A. Vaynson, М. Калинина, M. Kalinina, А. Бирюков, A. Biryukov
    Medical Radiology and radiation safety.2019; : 5.     CrossRef
  • Causal inference in environmental epidemiology
    Sanghyuk Bae, Hwan-Cheol Kim, Byeongjin Ye, Won-Jun Choi, Young-Seoub Hong, Mina Ha
    Environmental Health and Toxicology.2017; 32: e2017015.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Characteristics of Injury in a University Hospital.
Younsu Shin, Soonduck Kim, Jesuk Lee
Korean J Epidemiol. 2007;29(2):155-164.
  • 40,975 View
  • 21 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
PURPOSE
This study was performed to provide the basic data in the establishment of preventive countermeasures for injury by analyzing the characteristics of injury, and risk factors of injury.
METHODS
From 2,059 injury patients among 19,947 patients admitted between January and December, 2004 at a university hospital located in Gyeonggi-do, 500 injury patients were sampled randomly by systematic sampling. A total of 500 questionnaires was collected and used for this study. The statistical SPSS was used to analyze data that included chi-square, fisher's exact test.
RESULTS
Injury patients among total admission patients was 10.3%. In both general characteristics of injury and non-injury patients, gender, age, length of stay was significant. As the cause of injury were compared with those of injury external causes, type, place, site, and time of injury were significant. As the cause of injury were compared with the characteristics of related-injury, surgery, multiple injuries, mental history, consciousness at the time emergency room visit, length stays were significant.
CONCLUSION
With regard to general characteristics, injury external causes, injury-related causes, and factors such as sex, age, occupation, and educational background were related to each other. Injury does not occur by accident or unexpectedly. Therefore, if preventive attention is focused on individuals with high risk factors of injury, the incidence rate will be diminished.
Summary
The Effect of Work Department, Income and Job Status on the Workplace Injury Rates in One Car Manufacturing Factory.
Mi A Son
Korean J Epidemiol. 2001;23(2):52-63.
  • 4,760 View
  • 12 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
PURPOSE
There has been little research into socio-economic factors and work condition s as risk factors for workplace injuries in Korea. Separating work from social class is difficult as the social division of labour is at the origin of social class (1). The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship of working conditions and socio-economic factors with workplace injury rates.
METHODS
Three year-follow up data sets for workplace injury data analysis for retrospective cohort study were obtained linking the total workforce and workplace injuries between 1995 and 1997. The Proportional Hazards Model (Cox regression) is used to estimate the hazard ratios for workplace injury by different possible risk factors: work department, income, job status, age and tenure.
RESULTS
The press, body and engine departments have higher hazard rates for severe injuries; the press, engine, and supporting departments for lower-back pain; and the assembly line (with wider confidence interval) and supporting departments for Herniated Intervertebral Discs. Lower waged workers have higher rates of workplace injuries, especially for lower-back pain. Workers with low job status have higher rates than foremen or supervisors. Thus, socio-economic factors and work department contribute independently to workplace injury rates.
CONCLUSIONS
Even though this study could not fully investigate the relationship between socio-economic factors and working conditions, the working conditions as well as socioeconomic factors need to be considered as risk factors of workplace injuries in the workplace.
Summary

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