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Original Articles
Association between plant-based diets and the risk of coronary heart disease predicted using the Framingham Risk Score in Korean men: data from the HEXA cohort study
Khongorzul Ganbat, Bayarmaa Nasan Ulzii, Sangah Shin
Epidemiol Health. 2024;46:e2024035.   Published online February 28, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2024035
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study investigated the potential correlation between 4 plant-based diet indices and the predicted risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in Korean men using the Framingham Risk Score.
METHODS
The study included 12,356 men participants (aged ≥40 years) from the Health Examinees Study. Dietary intake was estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Four plant-based diet indices were measured, including the overall plant-based diet index, the healthy plant-based diet index (hPDI), the unhealthy plant-based diet index (uPDI), and the pro-vegetarian diet index. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the predicted 10-year risk of CHD.
RESULTS
The study found that individuals in the highest hPDI quintile had a 19% lower risk score for CHD based on the Framingham Risk Score (model 3: HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.69 to 0.93; p for trend=0.010). In stratified analyses, the highest pro-vegetarian diet index was associated with a lower risk score for CHD in physically active individuals (HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.59 to 0.93; p for interaction=0.020). Conversely, the highest uPDI was associated with the highest risk score for CHD in those with a body mass index of ≥25 kg/m2 and a waist circumference ≥90 cm.
CONCLUSIONS
This prospective cohort study highlights the positive role of adhering to a high hPDI diet in the prevention of CHD in Korean men. Further prospective studies are needed to determine the association between various plant-based diet indices and the risk of CHD in Asian populations with different dietary habits.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 한국 남성의 관상 동맥 심장 질환(CHD) 위험을 줄이는데 있어서 식이 패턴, 특히 건강한 식물성 식이 지수의 역할이 중요함을 강조한다. 높은 hPDI지수를 가진 사람이 CHD 위험이 유의미하게 19% 감소하는 것은 건강한 식물성 기반 식단 선택이 심혈관 건강에 미칠 수 있는 잠재된 영향력을 강조한다.
A prospective association between dietary mushroom intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes: the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study–Cardiovascular Disease Association Study
Yu-Mi Kim, Hye Won Woo, Min-Ho Shin, Sang Baek Koh, Hyeon Chang Kim, Mi Kyung Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2024;46:e2024017.   Published online January 8, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2024017
  • 2,317 View
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Mushrooms, known for their nutritious and functional components, are considered healthy and medicinal. This study investigated the prospective association between dietary mushroom consumption and the incidence of type 2 diabetes among Korean adults aged ≥40 years.
METHODS
In total, 16,666 participants who were not taking anti-diabetic medication or insulin and had normal fasting blood glucose (FBG; <126 mg/dL) were included. We used the cumulative average dietary consumption of mushrooms as an exposure metric, calculated from food frequency questionnaires at every follow-up, along with covariates collected during a baseline survey. To estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for type 2 diabetes, a modified Poisson regression model with a robust error estimator was applied.
RESULTS
In multivariable models, dietary mushroom consumption was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes incidence in both genders (men: IRR, 0.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.47 to 0.90; p<sub>linearity</sub>=0.043 in the highest quartile (Q4) vs. the lowest quartile (Q1); women: IRR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.54 to 0.93; p<sub>linearity</sub>=0.114 in Q4 vs. Q1). The inverse association remained after adjustment for dietary factors instead of dietary quality index, the baseline FBG, and the exclusion of incidence within the first year. Additionally, no significant interaction was found regarding the risk of type 2 diabetes between dietary mushroom consumption and participants’ gender or other factors.
CONCLUSIONS
Dietary mushroom consumption was inversely linked with the risk of type 2 diabetes incidence in both genders, indicating the beneficial role of mushrooms in preventing the disease.
Summary
Korean summary
- 흔히 사용하는 버섯의 식이 섭취량이 증가함에 따라 한국 40세 이상 성인에서 제2형 당뇨병 발생 위험이 낮았다. - 이러한 역관계는 성별과 다양한 식이 배경에서도 일관성을 유지하였고, 이는 버섯이 제2형 당뇨병 예방에 있어 잠재적인 식이요소로서의 가능성을 보여주는성을 보여주는 보여주는 결과이다.
Key Message
• Increased dietary consumption of commonly used mushrooms is associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes incidence among adults aged 40 years or older in Korea. • This inverse relationship remains consistent across genders and various dietary backgrounds, underscoring the potential of mushrooms as a preventive dietary component against.
COVID-19: Original Article
The bounds of meta-analytics and an alternative method
Ramalingam Shanmugam, Mohammad Tabatabai, Derek Wilus, Karan P. Singh
Epidemiol Health. 2024;46:e2024016.   Published online January 7, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2024016
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Meta-analysis is a statistical appraisal of the data analytic implications of published articles (Y), estimating parameters including the odds ratio and relative risk. This information is helpful for evaluating the significance of the findings. The Higgins I2 index is often used to measure heterogeneity among studies. The objectives of this article are to amend the Higgins I2 index score in a novel and innovative way and to make it more useful in practice.
METHODS
Heterogeneity among study populations can be affected by many sources, including the sample size and study design. They influence the Cochran Q score and, thus, the Higgins I2 score. In this regard, the I2 score is not an absolute indicator of heterogeneity. Q changes by bound as Y increases unboundedly. An innovative methodology is devised to show the conditional and unconditional probability structures.
RESULTS
Various properties are derived, including showing that a zero correlation between Q and Y does not necessarily mean that they are independent. A new alternative statistic, S2, is derived and applied to mild cognitive impairment and coronavirus disease 2019 vaccination for meta-analysis.
CONCLUSIONS
A hidden shortcoming of the Higgins I2 index is overcome in this article by amending the Higgins I2 score. The usefulness of the proposed methodology is illustrated using 2 examples. The findings have potential health policy implications.
Summary
Key Message
An approach to overcome the hidden shortcomings of Higgens I2 in meta-analysis. The approach has potential health policy implications.
Original Articles
Smoking-attributable mortality among Korean adults in 2019
Yeun Soo Yang, Keum Ji Jung, Heejin Kimm, Sunmi Lee, Sun Ha Jee
Epidemiol Health. 2024;46:e2024011.   Published online December 19, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2024011
  • 1,269 View
  • 84 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Tobacco use ranks among the leading preventable causes of death worldwide. This study was conducted to calculate the mortality rate attributable to smoking in Korea for 2019 and to highlight the importance of tracking and monitoring smoking-related deaths for public health purposes.
METHODS
Population attributable risk (PAR) was used to estimate the number of deaths related to smoking in 2019. PAR percentages were applied to the estimated mortality figures for various diseases, with PAR determined based on relative risk (RR). Levin’s formula was used to calculate PAR, and RR was adjusted for age and alcohol consumption using Cox proportional hazards regression model to derive disease-specific regression coefficients. The analysis incorporated previously determined smoking rates from 1985, and use rates of novel tobacco products were not considered.
RESULTS
The findings revealed a total of 67,982 smoking-attributable deaths in Korea in 2019, 56,993 of which occurred in men and 11,049 in women. The PAR of smoking for various causes of death in adult men was highest for lung cancer at 74.9%, followed by pneumonia (29.4%), ischemic heart disease (42.3%), and stroke (30.2%). For women, the PAR for smoking-related death was highest for lung cancer (19.9%), followed by stroke (7.6%), pneumonia (5.7%), and ischemic heart disease (9.1%).
CONCLUSIONS
In countries experiencing rapid fluctuations in smoking rates, including Korea, regular studies on smoking-related mortality is imperative. Furthermore, it is necessary to investigate smoking-related deaths, including the prevalence of novel tobacco product use, to accurately gauge the risks associated with emerging tobacco products.
Summary
Korean summary
이 연구는 2019년 한국에서 흡연으로 인한 사망률을 계산하고 공중 보건 목적을 위한 흡연 관련 사망추적 및 모니터링의 중요성을 강조합니다. 연구 결과, 2019년 한국에서 흡연으로 인해 총 67,982명이 사망했으며, 이 중 남성이 56,993명, 여성이 11,049명이었습니다. 특히 남성의 경우 폐암(74.9%), 여성의 경우 폐암(19.9%)에서 흡연으로 인한 사망 위험이 가장 높게 나타났습니다.
Key Message
This study analyzed deaths attributable to smoking in Korea in 2019, revealing that a total of 67,982 individuals lost their lives due to smoking. Among these, 56,993 were men and 11,049 were women, with the highest smoking-related mortality rate observed in men due to lung cancer at 74.9%, and in women due to lung cancer at 19.9%. Through these findings, this research emphasizes the importance of tracking and monitoring smoking-related deaths for public health.
Risk factors for early-onset lung cancer in Korea: analysis of a nationally representative population-based cohort
Jihun Kang, Taeyun Kim, Kyung-Do Han, Jin-Hyung Jung, Su-Min Jeong, Yo Hwan Yeo, Kyuwon Jung, Hyun Lee, Jong Ho Cho, Dong Wook Shin
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023101.   Published online November 21, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023101
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
We examined the associations of socioeconomic factors, health behaviors, and comorbidities with early-onset lung cancer.
METHODS
The study included 6,794,287 individuals aged 20-39 years who participated in a Korean national health check-up program from 2009 to 2012. During the follow-up period, 4,684 participants developed lung cancer. Multivariable Cox regression analysis was used to estimate the independent associations of potential risk factors with incident lung cancer.
RESULTS
Older age (multivariable hazard ratio [mHR], 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12 to 1.14) and female sex (mHR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.49 to 1.75) were associated with increased lung cancer risk. Current smoking was also associated with elevated risk (<10 pack-years: mHR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.24; ≥10 pack-years: mHR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.18 to 1.45), but past smoking was not. Although mild alcohol consumption (<10 g/day) was associated with lower lung cancer risk (mHR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.86 to 0.99), heavier alcohol consumption (≥10 g/day) was not. Higher income (highest vs. lowest quartile: mHR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.78 to 0.94), physical activity for at least 1,500 metabolic equivalent of task-min/wk (vs. non-exercisers: mHR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.69 to 0.99) and obesity (vs. normal weight: mHR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.83 to 0.96) were associated with lower lung cancer risk, whereas metabolic syndrome was associated with increased risk (mHR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.24).
CONCLUSIONS
In young adults, age, female sex, smoking, and metabolic syndrome were risk factors for early-onset lung cancer, while high income, physical activity, and obesity displayed protective effects.
Summary
Korean summary
나이, 여성, 흡연, 그리고 대사 증후군은 조기 발생 폐암의 위험도 증가와 연관이 있었다. 반면에 높은 소득, 신체 활동, 비만은 젊은 성인에서 폐암 발생의 위험도 감소와 연관성을 나타내었다.
Key Message
Age, female sex, smoking, and metabolic syndrome were risk factors for early-onset lung cancer. While, high income, physical activity, and obesity displayed protective effects on the development of lung cancer in young adults.
Trends in the effects of socioeconomic position on physical activity levels and sedentary behavior among Korean adolescents
Hunju Lee, Hyowon Choi, Sang Baek Koh, Hyeon Chang Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023085.   Published online September 8, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023085
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  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
We examined trends in physical activity and sedentary behavior in Korean adolescents, and their association with socioeconomic position (SEP).
METHODS
We used data from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey, a nationwide study involving students aged 12-19 conducted between 2009 and 2021. SEP was assessed based on economic status, parental education attainment, and urbanization. Physical activity was categorized into vigorous physical activity, moderate physical activity, and muscle training, and sedentary time was also measured. We conducted the log-binomial regression to calculate prevalence ratios (PRs) and prevalence differences.
RESULTS
Our analysis included a total of 593,896 students. We observed an increasing trend in physical activity, but a worsening trend in sedentary behavior. A positive association was found between an adolescent’s physical activity and SEP indicators, except for urbanization. Adolescents with higher economic status engaged in more vigorous physical activity (high: PR, 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25 to 1.28; middle: PR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.04). Similar associations were observed for father’s education (tertiary or above: PR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.13; upper secondary: PR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.07) and mother’s education (tertiary or above: PR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.15 to 1.20; upper secondary: PR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.08). Adolescents with higher economic status also showed a higher compliance rate with the guideline restricting sedentary time to 2 hours per day (high: PR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.25 to 1.30; middle: PR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.05).
CONCLUSIONS
Adolescents with higher SEP exhibited more physical activity and less sedentary time than those with lower SEP.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 2009년부터 2021년까지 청소년의 사회경제적 지위가 신체활동과 좌식생활습관에 미치는 영향을 분석하였다. 청소년의 경제적 상태, 아버지와 어머니의 교육수준이 높을수록 청소년의 신체활동이 증가하고 좌식생활이 감소하였다. 그러나 청소년이 사는 지역의 도시화 정도는 영향을 미치지 않았다.
Key Message
This article analyzes the effects of an adolescent's socio-economic position on their physical activity and sedentary behavior from 2009 to 2021. The higher the adolescent's economic status, father's education, or mother's education, the more they engaged in physical activity and the less time they spent in sedentary behaviors. However, the level of urbanization in the area where the adolescent resided had no effect.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Using structural equation modeling to explore the influences of physical activity, mental health, well-being, and loneliness on Douyin usage at bedtime
    Hongcheng Luo, Xing Zhang, Songpeng Su, Mingyang Zhang, Mingyue Yin, Siyuan Feng, Rui Peng, Hansen Li
    Frontiers in Public Health.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
The association between glaucoma and all-cause mortality in middle-aged and elderly Chinese people: results from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study
Xiaoxu Huang, Mengqiao Xu, Minwen Zhou, Wenjia Liu, Xiaohuan Zhao, Xiaodong Sun
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023066.   Published online July 21, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023066
  • 3,781 View
  • 96 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This population-based, prospective cohort study investigated the association between glaucoma and mortality in older adults.
METHODS
Participants aged 45 years or older at baseline (47.9% male) were enrolled in 2011 for the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS). All-cause mortality was observed during 7 years of follow-up. The baseline data were collected in the 2011 CHARLS, and participants were followed up for 7 years (until 2018). The risk of all-cause mortality was investigated using Cox proportional-hazards regression with age as the time scale, adjusting for significant risk factors and comorbid conditions.
RESULTS
Among the 14,803 participants included, the risk of all-cause death was significantly higher among people with glaucoma than among those without glaucoma, after adjustment for other confounders (hazard ratio [HR], 1.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 to 2.03). In a subgroup analysis based on the mean age of death, among those who were 75 years and older (n=1,231), the risk of all-cause death was significantly higher in patients with glaucoma than in those without glaucoma (HR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.24 to 1.89).
CONCLUSIONS
Participants with glaucoma had a higher risk of all-cause mortality, especially those aged 75 years and above. Our findings revealed potential mechanisms underlying an association between glaucoma and all-cause mortality. They also highlighted the importance of glaucoma management to prevent premature death in middle-aged and older adults.
Summary
Key Message
The present study suggests that glaucoma is associated with a higher rate of mortality in middle-aged and elderly people in China, especially for those aged 75 years and older. This study provides an important reference for the design and evaluation of clinical glaucoma treatment and the management of patients of different ages.
Prediction of the 10-year risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in the Korean population
Sangwoo Park, Yong-Giun Kim, Soe Hee Ann, Young-Rak Cho, Shin-Jae Kim, Seungbong Han, Gyung-Min Park
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023052.   Published online May 12, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023052
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Proper risk assessment is important for the primary prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). However, no validated risk prediction tools are currently in use in Korea. This study sought to develop a 10-year risk prediction model for incident ASCVD.
METHODS
Using the National Sample Cohort of Korea, 325,934 subjects aged 20-80 years without previous ASCVD were enrolled. ASCVD was defined as a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke. The Korean atherosclerotic cardiovas cular disease risk prediction (K-CVD) model was developed separately for men and women using the development dataset and validated in the validation dataset. Furthermore, the model performance was compared with the Framingham risk score (FRS) and pooled cohort equation (PCE).
RESULTS
Over 10 years of follow-up, 4,367 ASCVD events occurred in the overall population. The predictors of ASCVD included in the model were age, smoking status, diabetes, systolic blood pressure, lipid profiles, urine protein, and lipid-lowering and blood pressure-lowering treatment. The K-CVD model had good discrimination and strong calibration in the validation dataset (time-dependent area under the curve=0.846; 95% confidence interval, 0.828 to 0.864; calibration χ<sup>2</sup>=4.73, goodness-of-fit p=0.32). Compared with our model, both FRS and PCE showed worse calibration, overestimating ASCVD risk in the Korean population.
CONCLUSIONS
Through a nationwide cohort, we developed a model for 10-year ASCVD risk prediction in a contemporary Korean population. The K-CVD model showed excellent discrimination and calibration in Koreans. This population-based risk prediction tool would help to appropriately identify high-risk individuals and provide preventive interventions in the Korean population.
Summary
Korean summary
국민건강보험공단 표본 코호트를 이용하여, 한국인 인구에서 10년 죽상경화성 심혈관질환 위험 예측 (K-CVD) 모델을 개발하였다. 한국인 인구집단을 기반으로 개발된 K-CVD 모델은 한국 인구집단에서 판별력과 교정력 측면에서 우수한 성능을 보여주었다. K-CVD 모델은 한국인 집단에서 심혈관질환의 고위험군을 적절하게 식별하고, 예방적 중재를 시행하는데 있어 도움이 될 것으로 생각된다.
Key Message
Using a nationwide cohort, the Korean ASCVD risk prediction (K-CVD) model was developed for 10-year ASCVD risk prediction. The K-CVD model showed excellent discrimination and calibration in a contemporary Korean population. This population-based risk prediction tool would help to appropriately identify high-risk individuals and provide preventive interventions in the Korean population.
Association of group-level segregation with cardiovascular health in older adults: an analysis of data from the Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project
Sung-Ha Lee, Hyeok-Hee Lee, Kiho Sung, Yoosik Youm, Hyeon Chang Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023041.   Published online April 4, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023041
  • 5,442 View
  • 187 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The adverse health effects of individual-level social isolation (e.g., perceived loneliness) have been well documented in older adults. However, little is known about the impact of collective-level social isolation on health outcomes. We sought to examine the association of group-level segregation with cardiovascular health (CVH) in older adults.
METHODS
From the prospective Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project database, we identified 528 community-dwelling older adults who were aged ≥60 years or were married to those aged ≥60 years. Participants who belonged to smaller social groups separate from the major social group were defined as group-level-segregated. The CVH score was calculated as the number of ideal non-dietary CVH metrics (0-6), as modified from the American Heart Association’s Life’s Simple 7. Using ordinal logistic regression models, we assessed cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between group-level segregation and CVH.
RESULTS
Of the 528 participants (mean age, 71.7 years; 60.0% female), 108 (20.5%) were segregated at baseline. In the crosssectional analysis, group-level segregation was significantly associated with lower odds of having a higher CVH score at baseline after adjusting for socio-demographic factors and cognitive function (odds ratio [OR], 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43 to 0.95). Among 274 participants who completed an 8-year follow-up, group-level segregation at baseline was marginally associated with lower odds of having a higher CVH score at 8 years (OR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.24 to 1.02).
CONCLUSIONS
Group-level segregation was associated with worse CVH. These findings imply that the social network structure of a community may influence its members’ health status.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 “한국인의 사회적 삶, 건강과 노화에 대한 조사”(Korean Social Life, Health and Aging Project, KSHAP)에서 측정한 한 지역 내의 사회적 연결망 자료를 이용하여 사회적 분리와 심혈관 건강 사이의 관계를 살펴보았다. 그 결과, 사회적 분리는 비만, 고혈압, 콜레스테롤, 흡연, 음주 신체적 활동 등을 종합한 ‘라이프 심플 7’ 지표와 부정적인 관련성을 보였으며, 8년 후 추적 조사에서도 이 패턴이 유지되었다. 본 연구 결과는 사회적, 집단적 분리 현상이 신체적 건강에도 악영향을 초래할 수 있음을 시사한다.
Key Message
Using the prospective Korean Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (KSHAP) database, we discovered that group-level segregation was significantly associated with worse cardiovascular health (CVH). Also, we observed a tendency for baseline group-level segregation to be linked to worse CVH after an 8-year follow-up period. These findings emphasize the significance of group-level segregation as a potential contributing factor in the health outcomes of older adults.

Citations

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  • Association of social isolation and loneliness with the risk of hypertension in middle aged and older adults: Findings from a national representative longitudinal survey
    Shiqi Wang, Hao Zhang, Yiling Lou, Qiqi You, Qingqing Jiang, Shiyi Cao
    Journal of Affective Disorders.2024; 349: 577.     CrossRef
Clinical traits and systemic risks of familial diabetes mellitus according to age of onset and quantity: an analysis of data from the community-based KoGES cohort study
Ju-Yeun Lee, Kyungsik Kim, Sangjun Lee, Woo Ju An, Sue K. Park
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023029.   Published online February 23, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023029
  • 4,430 View
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical trait of familial diabetes mellitus (DM) by analyzing participants’ risk of DM according to the age of DM onset in parents and siblings, and to evaluate individuals’ risk of DM-associated cardiometabolic diseases.
METHODS
Altogether, 211,173 participants aged ≥40 years from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study were included in this study. The participants were divided into groups based on the number (1 or 2 relatives) and age of onset (no DM and early, common, or late onset) of familial DM. Participants’ risk of DM was assessed using a Cox regression model with hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A logistic regression model with odds ratios was used to evaluate associations among the participants’ likelihood of acquiring cardiometabolic diseases such as hypertension, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and cardiovascular disease.
RESULTS
The risk of developing DM was 2.02-fold (95% CI, 1.88 to 2.18) and 2.88-fold (95% CI, 2.50 to 3.33) higher, respectively, in participants with 1 and 2 family members diagnosed with familial DM. It was 2.72-fold (95% CI, 2.03 to 3.66) higher in those with early-onset familial DM. In the early-onset group, the respective risks of hypertension and CKD were 1.87-fold (95% CI, 1.37 to 2.55) and 4.31-fold (95% CI, 2.55 to 7.27) higher than in the control group.
CONCLUSIONS
The risk of DM and related cardiometabolic diseases was positively associated with the number of family members diagnosed with DM and an early diagnosis in family members with DM.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 한국인유전체역학조사사업 역학자료를 이용하여, 당뇨병을 진단받은 가족 구성원 (부모 및 형제)의 수가 많고 당뇨병이 조기에 발생할수록 개인의 당뇨발생 위험도가 높아짐을 보고하였습니다. 또한 당뇨병이 조기에 발생한 가족구성원이 있을 경우 개인의 일부 심대사질환과의 연관성이 있을 수 있음을 설명하였습니다.
Key Message
This study demonstrated that the risk of diabetes in individuals was significantly associated with the quantity and the onset of family members diagnosed with diabetes. We also explained that having a family member with early-onset diabetes can be associated with some cardiometabolic diseases in individuals.
Nationwide trends in the incidence of tuberculosis among people with disabilities in Korea: a nationwide serial cross-sectional study
Jinsoo Min, So Young Kim, Jong Eun Park, Yeon Yong Kim, Jong Hyock Park
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022098.   Published online October 28, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022098
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Studies on the association between disabilities and tuberculosis (TB) are scarce. We aimed to assess the risk of active TB disease among people with disabilities.
METHODS
We conducted a nationwide serial cross-sectional study using national registry linkage databases from 2008 to 2017. The crude and age-standardized and sex-standardized incidence rates of TB were analyzed for each year according to the presence, type, and severity of disabilities. The crude incidence rate and odds of developing TB disease were examined with a multivariable logistic regression model using data from 2017.
RESULTS
The overall incidence of active TB decreased between 2008 and 2017. The age- and sex-standardized incidence rates of TB disease among people with disabilities were significantly higher than among those without disabilities throughout all observed years (p<0.001). As of 2017, the population with disabilities had a higher crude incidence rate of active TB disease than that without disabilities (119.9/100,000 vs. 48.5/100,000 person-years, p<0.001), regardless of sex, income level, and place of residence. Compared to those without disabilities, those with disabilities had higher odds of active TB (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15 to 1.24). Individuals with mental disabilities (aOR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.24 to1.84) had the highest odds of active TB incidence, followed by those with developmental disabilities (aOR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.55).
CONCLUSIONS
People with disabilities are at a greater risk of developing TB disease. Active screening and care for TB cases would be beneficial for people with disabilities.
Summary
Korean summary
장애가 있는 사람은 이차적 건강 문제가 발생할 가능성이 더 높고 그들의 건강결정요인은 결핵 발생 위험 요인과 겹친다. 장애인은 비장애인에 비해 연령과 성별에 관계없이 활동성 결핵 발병률이 현저히 높았으며, 장애 유형 중 정신장애와 발달장애가 결핵에 더 취약한 것으로 나타났다. 장애인과 같이 결핵 감염 위험이 있는 취약계층을 파악하고 이들에게 결핵진단 및 항결핵치료의 어려움을 극복할 수 있도록 다학제적 지원을 제공하는 것이 중요하겠다.
Key Message
People with disabilities are more likely to develop secondary health conditions and their social determinants of health overlap with the risk factors for developing TB disease. We found that compared to people without disabilities, a markedly higher incidence of active TB disease among people with disabilities regardless of age and sex, and mental and developmental disabilities among types of disability were more prone to TB disease. It is critical to identify the vulnerable populations, such as people with disabilities, at risk of developing TB infection and provide them with multidisciplinary support to overcome any barriers during TB diagnosis and anti-TB treatment.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • The Korea National Disability Registration System
    Miso Kim, Wonyoung Jung, So Young Kim, Jong Hyock Park, Dong Wook Shin
    Epidemiology and Health.2023; 45: e2023053.     CrossRef
  • Nationwide Trends in Osteoporosis in Koreans With Disabilities From 2008 to 2017
    Ji Hyoun Kim, So Young Kim, Jong Eun Park, Hyo Jong Kim, Hyun Jeong Jeon, Yeon Yong Kim, Jong‐Hyock Park
    JBMR Plus.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Growing disparity in the prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease between people with and without disabilities: a Korean nationwide serial cross-sectional study
    Jinsoo Min, Jong Eun Park, So Young Kim, Yeon Yong Kim, Jong Hyock Park
    Scientific Reports.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
Prediction of cancer survivors’ mortality risk in Korea: a 25-year nationwide prospective cohort study
Yeun Soo Yang, Heejin Kimm, Keum Ji Jung, Seulji Moon, Sunmi Lee, Sun Ha Jee
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022075.   Published online September 13, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022075
  • 4,910 View
  • 149 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study aimed to investigate the factors affecting cancer survival and develop a mortality prediction model for Korean cancer survivors. Our study identified lifestyle and mortality risk factors and attempted to determine whether health-promoting lifestyles affect mortality.
METHODS
Among the 1,637,287 participants in the Korean Cancer Prevention Study (KCPS) cohort, 200,834 cancer survivors who were alive after cancer diagnosis were analyzed. Discrimination and calibration for predicting the 10-year mortality risk were evaluated. A prediction model was derived using the Cox model coefficients, mean risk factor values, and mean mortality from the cancer survivors in the KCPS cohort.
RESULTS
During the 21.6-year follow-up, the all-cause mortality rates of cancer survivors were 57.2% and 39.4% in men and women, respectively. Men, older age, current smoking, and a history of diabetes were high-risk factors for mortality, while exercise habits and a family history of cancer were associated with reduced risk. The prediction model discrimination in the validation dataset for both KCPS all-cause mortality and KCPS cancer mortality was shown by C-statistics of 0.69 and 0.68, respectively. Based on the constructed prediction models, when we modified exercise status and smoking status, as modifiable factors, the cancer survivors’ risk of mortality decreased linearly.
CONCLUSIONS
A mortality prediction model for cancer survivors was developed that may be helpful in supporting a healthy life. Lifestyle modifications in cancer survivors may affect their risk of mortality in the future.
Summary
Korean summary
현재 암 생존자의 사망 위험을 평가하는 데 유용한 한국형 암 생존자 사망률 예측 모델은 없습니다. 본 연구에서는 고령, 남성, 현재 흡연, 당뇨병 병력을 포함한 생활양식 요인이 사망의 고위험 요인인 반면, 운동 습관 및 암의 가족력은 사망 위험을 감소시키는 것으로 나타났습니다. 현재 흡연과 운동 습관은 사망 위험에 영향을 미치는 수정 가능한 두 가지 요소로써, 이러한 생활습관 요인으로 구성된 예측모형은 생활습관 교정을 통해 우리나라 암 생존자의 사망률을 낮출 수 있음을 시사합니다.
Key Message
Currently, there is no Korean mortality prediction model for cancer survivors that would be useful in evaluating their risk of mortality. The present study showed that lifestyle factors, including older age, male sex, current smoking, and history of diabetes were high-risk factors for mortality, while exercise habits and a family history of cancer reduced the risk of mortality. Current smoking and exercise habits are the two modifiable factors that affected the risk of mortality. The prediction model comprising these lifestyle factors implies that the risk of mortality of cancer survivors in Korea can be reduced through lifestyle modification.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • COVID-19 Mortality and Severity in Cancer Patients and Cancer Survivors
    Jae-Min Park, Hye Yeon Koo, Jae-ryun Lee, Hyejin Lee, Jin Yong Lee
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Weight maintenance and gain were significantly associated with lower risk of all-cause and cancer-related mortality in Korean adults who were newly diagnosed with cancer based on the Korean NHIS-HEALS cohort
    Yong-June Kim, Seung Park, Won Tae Kim, Yoon-Jong Bae, Yonghwan Kim, Hee-Taik Kang
    Medicine.2023; 102(47): e36184.     CrossRef
Local-level spatiotemporal dynamics of COVID-19 transmission in the Greater Seoul Area, Korea: a view from a Bayesian perspective
Youngbin Lym, Hyobin Lym, Ki-Jung Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022016.   Published online January 13, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022016
  • 9,750 View
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The purpose of this study was to enhance the understanding of the local-level spatiotemporal dynamics of COVID-19 transmission in the Greater Seoul Area (GSA), Korea, after its initial outbreak in January 2020.
METHODS
Using the weekly aggregates of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases of 77 municipalities in the GSA, we examined the relative risks of COVID-19 infection across local districts over 50 consecutive weeks in 2020. To this end, we employed a spatiotemporal generalized linear mixed model under the hierarchical Bayesian framework. This allowed us to empirically examine the random effects of spatial alignments, temporal autocorrelation, and spatiotemporal interaction, along with fixed effects. Specifically, we utilized the conditional autoregressive and the weakly informative penalized complexity priors for hyperparameters of the random effects.
RESULTS
Spatiotemporal interaction dominated the overall variability of random influences, followed by spatial correlation, whereas the temporal correlation appeared to be small. Considering these findings, we present dynamic changes in the spread of COVID-19 across local municipalities in the GSA as well as regions at elevated risk for further policy intervention.
CONCLUSIONS
The outcomes of this study can contribute to advancing our understanding of the local-level COVID-19 spread dynamics within densely populated regions in Korea throughout 2020 from a different perspective, and will contribute to the development of regional safety planning against infectious diseases.
Summary
Korean summary
본 논문은 수도권 지역에서 코로나바이러스가 처음 발생한 2020년 1월 이후 12월 말까지 총 50주 동안 수도권 내 지자체 수준에서의 코로나 19 전염병에 대한 시공간적 확산 역동성을 파악하기 위한 연구이다. 데이터 기반의 실증분석을 위한 계층적 베이지언 기법 기반의 시공간 일반화 선형 혼합모형의 결과에 따르면, 확률효과 중 시공간적 상호작용의 영향성이 가장 크게 나타났고, 다음으로는 공간자기상관에 의한 영향 순으로 나타난 반면, 시간에 의한 확률효과는 상대적으로 적게 도출되었다. 연구의 결과를 종합하여, 본 연구에서는 지도 기반의 코로나 19 위험 및 그 위험의 시공간적 변화를 제시하고, 향후 전염병에 대한 정책대응에 활용될 수 있도록 하였다.
Key Message
This study investigates the local-level spatiotemporal dynamics of COVID-19 transmission in the Greater Seoul Area, Korea, after its initial outbreak in January 2020. We adopt a flexible hierarchical Bayesian method so as to account for latent influences of space and time along with the fixed effects by covariates. The results suggest that spatiotemporal interaction dominates the overall variability of random influences, followed by spatial correlation, while the temporal effect appears to be small. Based on these findings, we present maps that depict dynamic changes of COVID-19 infection as well as regions of elevated risks for further policy consideration.

Citations

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  • A Review of Bayesian Spatiotemporal Models in Spatial Epidemiology
    Yufeng Wang, Xue Chen, Feng Xue
    ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information.2024; 13(3): 97.     CrossRef
The predictive value of resting heart rate in identifying undiagnosed diabetes in Korean adults: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Dong-Hyuk Park, Wonhee Cho, Yong-Ho Lee, Sun Ha Jee, Justin Y. Jeon
Epidemiol Health. 2022;44:e2022009.   Published online January 3, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2022009
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The purpose of this study was (1) to examine whether the addition of resting heart rate (RHR) to the existing undiagnosed diabetes mellitus (UnDM) prediction model would improve predictability, and (2) to develop and validate UnDM prediction models by using only easily assessable variables such as gender, RHR, age, and waist circumference (WC).
METHODS
Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010, 2012, 2014, 2016 data were used to develop the model (model building set, n=19,675), while the data from 2011, 2013, 2015, 2017 were used to validate the model (validation set, n=19,917). UnDM was defined as a fasting glucose level ≥126 mg/dL or glycated hemoglobin ≥6.5%; however, doctors have not diagnosed it. Statistical package for the social sciences logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of UnDM.
RESULTS
RHR, age, and WC were associated with UnDM. When RHR was added to the existing model, sensitivity was reduced (86 vs. 73%), specificity was increased (49 vs. 65%), and a higher Youden index (35 vs. 38) was expressed. When only gender, RHR, age, and WC were used in the model, a sensitivity, specificity, and Youden index of 70%, 67%, and 37, respectively, were observed.
CONCLUSIONS
Adding RHR to the existing UnDM prediction model improved specificity and the Youden index. Furthermore, when the prediction model only used gender, RHR, age, and WC, the outcomes were not inferior to those of the existing prediction model.
Summary
Korean summary
당뇨병 미인지 또는 미진단은 적절한 치료 시작 시기를 늦추고 당뇨병 합병증 발생의 위험을 높이기 때문에, 각국은 당뇨병 예측 모형을 개발하여 당뇨병을 조기에 예측하고, 치료 시기를 앞당기기 위해 노력하고 있다. 본 연구는 기존의 한국인 당뇨병 예측 모형에 안정시심박수를 추가 변수로 포함시켜, 예측 모형의 성능이 일부개선되는 것을 확인하였고, 더 나아가 나이, 허리 둘레, 그리고 안정시심박수를 포함하여 예측 모형을 개발하고, 그 성능을 확인하였다. 본 연구에서는 간단하게 측정이 가능한 허리 둘레와 안정시심박수 그리고 나이만 포함한 예측 모형이 기존의 예측 모형과 비교해 성능이 열등하지 않은 것을 확인하였다.
Key Message
Higher RHR is associated with increased risk of diabetes. When RHR is added to the Korean undiagnosed diabetes risk score model (Age, Family history of diabetes, Hypertension, Waist circumference, Smoking, Alcohol consumption), the model somewhat increased its predictability of undiagnosed diabetes. Furthermore, the prediction model developed only using age, waist circumference and RHR, which anyone can easily measure or access, had similar predictability to the previous undiagnosed diabetes risk prediction model. The results of this study may help develop future strategies or applications for predicting early undiagnosed diabetes.

Citations

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  • Comparisons of the prediction models for undiagnosed diabetes between machine learning versus traditional statistical methods
    Seong Gyu Choi, Minsuk Oh, Dong–Hyuk Park, Byeongchan Lee, Yong-ho Lee, Sun Ha Jee, Justin Y. Jeon
    Scientific Reports.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Factors related to undiagnosed diabetes in Korean adults: a secondary data analysis
    Bohyun Kim
    Journal of Korean Biological Nursing Science.2023; 25(4): 295.     CrossRef
Late eating, blood pressure control, and cardiometabolic risk factors among adults with hypertension: results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2018
Jee-Seon Shim, Hyeon Chang Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021101.   Published online November 24, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021101
  • 9,334 View
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  • 1 Web of Science
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
Despite growing concerns regarding the timing of eating, little is known about the association between late eating and health. This study aimed to investigate whether late eating is associated with blood pressure (BP) control and cardiometabolic risk factors among Korean adults with hypertension.
METHODS
Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2018 were used. Adults with hypertension aged 30-79 years (n=13,361) were included in this study. Dietary intake and information on meal timing were assessed using 1-day 24-hour recall. Late eating was defined as after the median midpoint between the times of the first and the last eating episode during the recall day. Logistic and linear regression models were used to estimate the associations of late eating with BP control and cardiometabolic risk factors.
RESULTS
Among late eaters, there were more men than women. Compared to early eaters, late eaters were younger, had a higher body mass index (BMI) and unhealthier habits, and their overall dietary quality score was lower. A negative association between late eating and BP control was found in a univariate model (odds ratio [OR], 0.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94 to 1.12), but this association disappeared after adjustment for confounders (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.94 to 1.12). Late eating was independently associated with higher BMI (p=0.03) and blood triglyceride concentration (p<0.01).
CONCLUSIONS
Our results do not support a link between late eating and BP control among adults with hypertension, but suggest that late eating is associated with cardiometabolic risk factors.
Summary
Korean summary
식사시간이 건강에 미치는 영향에 대한 관심이 증가하고 있지만, 이에 대한 근거는 많지 않다. 이 연구는 국민건강영양조사 자료를 활용하여 고혈압이 있는 성인의 늦은 식사와 혈압 조절, 심장대사 위험인자의 연관성을 분석하였다. 늦은 식사와 혈압 조절의 독립적 연관성은 찾지 못했지만, 늦은 식사는 높은 체질량지수, 혈중 지질 농도와 연관성을 보여 식사 시간 조정이 고혈압 환자의 예후 개선을 위한 유용한 대책이 될 수 있으리라는 근거를 지지한다.
Key Message
This study investigated whether late eating is associated with blood pressure (BP) control and cardiometabolic risk factors among Korean adults with hypertension using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010–2018. We did not find an independent association between late eating and BP control among Korean adults with hypertension, but found that late eating was significantly associated with higher BMI and a higher blood concentration of triglycerides, independent of potential confounders. Our findings support the suggestion that a time-based dietary approach can be used as a useful strategy to improve the prognosis of adults with hypertension.

Citations

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  • Eating patterns in Korean adults, 1998–2018: increased energy contribution of ultra-processed foods in main meals and snacks
    Sukyoung Jung, Jee Young Kim, Sohyun Park
    European Journal of Nutrition.2024; 63(1): 279.     CrossRef
  • Association between time-of-day for eating, exercise, and sleep with blood pressure in adults with elevated blood pressure or hypertension: a systematic review
    Thomas Keiser, Sarah Katz, Shannon M. Robson, Jody L. Greaney, Sean Healy, Susan K. Malone, Vahid Farrahi, Freda Patterson
    Journal of Hypertension.2024; 42(6): 951.     CrossRef
  • Relationship between omitting breakfast and late eating with obesity and metabolic disorders: a review focusing on chrononutrition
    Gabriel da Silva Almeida, Manoela Oliveira De Souza, Leonardo Matthew Ribeiro Nunes Pereira
    Journal Archives of Health.2023; 4(2): 466.     CrossRef

Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health