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Data Profiles
Data resource profile: the Korean Community Health Status Indicators (K-CHSI) database
Hye-Eun Lee, Yeon-gyeong Kim, Jin-Young Jeong, Dong-Hyun Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2023;45:e2023016.   Published online February 2, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2023016
  • 2,841 View
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AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
Korean Community Health Status Indicators (K-CHSI) is a model-based database containing annual data on health outcomes and determinants at the municipal level (<i>si/gun/gu</i>-level regions, including mid-sized cities, counties, and districts). K-CHSI’s health outcomes include overall mortality, disease incidence, prevalence rates, and self-reported health. Health determinants were measured in 5 domains: socio-demographic factors, health behaviors, social environment, physical environment, and the healthcare system. The data sources are 71 public databases, including Causes of Death Statistics, Cancer Registration Statistics, Community Health Survey, Population Census, and Census on Establishments and Statistics of Urban Plans. This dataset covers Korea’s 17 metropolitan cities and provinces, with data from approximately 250 municipal regions (<i>si/gun/gu</i>). The current version of the database (DB version 1.3) was built using 12 years of data from 2008 to 2019. All data included in K-CHSI may be downloaded via the Korea Community Health Survey site, with no login requirement (https://chs.kdca.go.kr/chs/recsRoom/dataBaseMain.do). K-CHSI covers extensive health outcomes and health determinants at the municipal level over a period of more than 10 years, which enables ecological and time-series analyses of the relationships among various health outcomes and related factors.
Summary
Korean summary
지역사회 건강관련요인 데이터베이스는 17개 광역시도와 약 250개 시군구의 건강 결과 및 결정 요인에 대한 연간 데이터를 포함하는 모델 기반 데이터베이스이다. 본 데이터베이스의 건강 결과에는 사망률, 질병 발생률, 유병률, 자가 보고 건강상태 등이 포함되며 건강 결정 요인은 인구사회학적 환경, 건강 행태, 사회적 환경, 물리적 환경, 보건의료 체계의 5개 영역으로 구성되었다. 데이터는 질병관리청 지역사회건강조사 사이트에서 로그인 없이 다운로드할 수 있다(https://chs.kdca.go.kr/chs/recsRoom/dataBaseMain.do).
Key Message
Korean Community Health Status Indicators (K-CHSI) is a model-based database containing annual data on health outcomes and determinants from 17 metropolitan cities and provinces, with data from approximately 250 municipal regions (si/gun/gu). K-CHSI’s health outcomes include overall mortality, disease incidence, prevalence rates, and self-reported health. Health determinants were measured in 5 domains: socio-demographic factors, health behaviors, social environment, physical environment, and the healthcare system. The data included in K-CHSI may be downloaded via the Korea Community Health Survey site, with no login requirement (https://chs.kdca.go.kr/chs/recsRoom/dataBaseMain.do).
Data resource profile: the Korea National Hospital Discharge In-depth Injury Survey
Yeon-Kyeng Lee, Sung Ok Hong, Soo-Jung Park, Mijin Park, Kyunghae Wang, Mini Jo, Jeongah Oh, Sin Ae Lee, Hyeon Ju Lee, Jungeun Oh, Dosang Lim, Sanghui Kweon, Youngtaek Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021052.   Published online August 17, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021052
  • 7,946 View
  • 110 Download
  • 5 Web of Science
  • 5 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
The Korea National Hospital Discharge In-depth Injury Survey (KNHDIS), which was started in 2005, is a national probability survey of general hospitals in Korea with 100 or more beds conducted by the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency (KDCA). The KNHDIS captures approximately 9% of discharged cases from sampled hospitals using a 2-stage stratified cluster sampling scheme, among which 13% are injury related cases, defined as S00-T98 (injury, poisoning, and certain other consequences of external causes) using International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision codes. The KNHDIS collects information on characteristics of injury-related discharges in order to understand the scale of injuries, identify risk factors, and provide data supporting prevention policies and intervention strategies. The types of data captured include the hospitals’ information, detailed clinical information, and injury-related codes such as the mechanism, activities undertaken when injured (sports, leisure activities, work, treatment, and education), external causes of the injury, and location of the occurrence of the injury based on the International Classification of External Causes of Injuries. Furthermore, the means of transportation, risk factors for suicide, and toxic substances are recoreded. Annual reports of the KNHDIS are publicly accessible to browse via the KDCA website (http://www.kdca.go.kr) and microdata are available free of charge upon request via email (kcdcinjury@korea.kr).
Summary
Korean summary
퇴원손상심층조사는 손상발생 규모 및 손상 퇴원환자의 발생 추이를 파악하고자 2005년 도입된국가 단위 통계를 산출하는 표본 조사 사업이다. 본 연구는 퇴원손상심층조사의 표본설계, 조사방법, 조사항목과 함께 그간의 조사결과의 활용도 등 성과에 대해 살펴보았다. 조사결과는 국가 손상예방관리를 위한 기초자료로 활용되고 있으며, 조사 원자료는 공개하고 있다.
Key Message
The Korea National Hospital Discharge In-depth Injury Survey (KNHDIS), started in 2005, is a national probability survey of general hospitals in Korea with 100 or more beds conducted by the Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency. The KNHDIS collects information on characteristics of injury-related discharges to understand the scale of injuries, identify risk factors, and provide data supporting prevention policies. The data captured including the hospitals’ information, and injury-related codes based on the International Classification of External Causes of Injuries. Annual reports of the KNHDIS are publicly accessible from KDCA website and microdata are available upon request via email.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Predictive model for early functional outcomes following acute care after traumatic brain injuries: A machine learning-based development and validation study
    Meng Zhang, Moning Guo, Zihao Wang, Haimin Liu, Xue Bai, Shengnan Cui, Xiaopeng Guo, Lu Gao, Lingling Gao, Aimin Liao, Bing Xing, Yi Wang
    Injury.2023; 54(3): 896.     CrossRef
  • Area-Level Socioeconomic Inequalities in Intracranial Injury-Related Hospitalization in Korea: A Retrospective Analysis of Data From Korea National Hospital Discharge Survey 2008–2015
    Hang A Park, Federico E. Vaca, Kyunghee Jung-Choi, Hyesook Park, Ju Ok Park
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Comorbidity Patterns and Management in Inpatients with Endocrine Diseases by Age Groups in South Korea: Nationwide Data
    Sung-Soo Kim, Hun-Sung Kim
    Journal of Personalized Medicine.2023; 14(1): 42.     CrossRef
  • Estimated trends in hospitalizations due to occupational injuries in Korea based on the Korean National Hospital Discharge In-depth Injury Survey (2006-2019)
    Seong-Uk Baek, Won-Tae Lee, Min-Seok Kim, Myeong-Hun Lim, Jin-Ha Yoon
    Epidemiology and Health.2023; 45: e2023042.     CrossRef
  • The Association between Comorbidities and Comorbid Injuries on Treatment Outcome in Pediatric and Elderly Patients with Injuries in Korea: An Observational Study
    Kyunghee Lee, Jieun Hwang
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(10): 6277.     CrossRef
COVID-19: Original Article
Epidemiological characteristics of a COVID-19 outbreak caused by religious activities in Daegu, Korea
Jong-Yeon Kim, Yu-Mi Lee, Hwajin Lee, Jung-Whan Kim, Shin-Woo Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2021;43:e2021024.   Published online April 14, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2021024
  • 10,923 View
  • 354 Download
  • 6 Web of Science
  • 10 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
A coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak triggered by religious activities occurred in Daegu, Korea in February 2020. This outbreak spread rapidly to the community through high-risk groups. This study describes the characteristics of COVID-19 cases based on S religious group membership and summarizes the Daegu municipal government’s processes and responses to control the outbreak.
METHODS
The epidemiological characteristics of confirmed cases were obtained through basic and in-depth epidemiological surveys. General characteristics, the proportion of asymptomatic cases, the case-fatality rate, and the time-to-event within each group were presented after stratifying confirmed cases according to S religious group membership.
RESULTS
Overall, 7,008 COVID-19 cases were confirmed in Daegu from February 18, 2020 to June 30, 2020, and 61.5% (n= 4,309) were S religious group members. Compared with non-members, members had a higher proportion of female (p< 0.001) and younger age (p< 0.001), as well as lower disease prevalence. At the time of the investigation, 38.4% of cases in members were asymptomatic versus 23.7% of cases in non-members (p< 0.001). The case-fatality rate of non-members aged ≥ 60 years was significantly higher than that of members (p< 0.001). Compared with non-members, members had longer intervals from symptom onset to diagnosis (p< 0.001) and from diagnosis to admission (p< 0.001), and a shorter interval from admission to discharge (p< 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS
The epidemiological features of S religious group members, including the proportion of asymptomatic cases, case-fatality rate, and time-to-event, differed from non-members. The Daegu authorities prevented further COVID-19 spread through immediate isolation and active screening tests of all S religious group members.
Summary
Korean summary
2020년 2월 대구에서는 종교활동에 의한 코로나바이러스감염증-19(COVID-19) 유행이 발생하였다. 2020년 2월 18일부터 6월 30일까지 대구에서 7,008명이 확진되었으며, 이 중 약 61.5%가 S 종교집단의 신도였다. 비신도인 확진자에 비하여 S 종교집단의 신도인 확진자는 높은 여성 비율, 낮은 연령, 낮은 기저질환 유병률, 높은 무증상 감염율, 동일 연령대에 비하여 낮은 치명률을 보였다. 대구시 보건당국은 S 종교집단의 모든 회원에 대한 즉각적인 격리와 적극적인 선별검사를 통해 지역사회 내 더욱 광범위한 COVID-19 확산을 막을 수 있었다.
Key Message
A coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak triggered by religious activities occurred in Daegu, Korea in February 2020. Overall, 7,008 COVID-19 cases were confirmed in Daegu from February 18, 2020 to June 30, 2020, and approximately 61.5% were S religious group members. Compared with non-members, members had a higher proportion of women, younger age, and lower disease prevalence, higher proportion of asymptomatic cases and lower case-fatality rate within the same age group. The Daegu authorities prevented further COVID-19 spread through immediate isolation and active screening tests of all S religious group members.

Citations

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  • Achieving COVID-19 zero without lockdown, January 2020 to March 2022: The Taiwan model explained
    Yi-Hsuan Chen, Chi-Tai Fang
    Journal of the Formosan Medical Association.2024; 123: S8.     CrossRef
  • Estimation of the Effectiveness of a Tighter, Reinforced Quarantine for the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Outbreak: Analysis of the Third Wave in South Korea
    Marn Joon Park, Ji Ho Choi, Jae Hoon Cho
    Journal of Personalized Medicine.2023; 13(3): 402.     CrossRef
  • COVID-19 outbreak in a religious village community in Republic of Korea and risk factors for transmission
    Jiae Shim, Eunju Lee, Eunyoung Kim, Yeonhwa Choi, Giseok Kang, Bryan Inho Kim
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2023; 14(2): 110.     CrossRef
  • Factors Related to the Transmission of COVID-19 within Households from Pediatric Initial Cases
    Da Hye Lee, Jong Yeon Kim, Youn Joo Kim, Seung Soo Lee, Won Kee Lee
    Journal of Health Informatics and Statistics.2023; 48(3): 203.     CrossRef
  • COVID-19 outbreak and risk factors for infection in a taekwondo gym in the Republic of Korea
    Seung Hwan Shin, Eonjoo Park, Sookhyun Kim, Minji Jang, Subin Park, Dong-Hwi Kim, Tae Jong Son, Ji-Hyuk Park
    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives.2022; 13(2): 162.     CrossRef
  • Preventive Measures Against COVID-19 in Small- and Mid-sized Enterprises from an Early Stage of the Epidemic in Daegu and Gyeongsangbuk-do
    Kiook Baek, Seong-Hui Kim, Chulyong Park, Joon Sakong
    Safety and Health at Work.2022; 13(3): 294.     CrossRef
  • An Experience of the Early Stage of COVID-19 Outbreak in Nursing Homes in Gyeonggi Province, Korea
    Gawon Choi, Na-young Kim, Seon-young Lee, Hae Deun Noh, Heeyoung Lee
    Korean Journal of Clinical Geriatrics.2022; 23(1): 27.     CrossRef
  • Evaluation of a Follow-Up Health Consultation Program for Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Korea: Using the Context–Input–Process–Product Model
    Keun-Mi Lee, Hae-Jin Ko, Geon Ho Lee, Yun-A Kim, Seung-Pil Jung, A-Sol Kim
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2022; 19(13): 7996.     CrossRef
  • Evaluation of the Public Health Emergency Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic in Daegu, Korea During the First Half of 2020
    Hwajin Lee, Keon-Yeop Kim, Jong-Yeon Kim, Sin Kam, Kyeong Soo Lee, Jung Jeung Lee, Nam Soo Hong, Tae-Yoon Hwang
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2022; 55(4): 360.     CrossRef
  • COVID-19 Outbreak in Daegu City, Korea and Response to COVID-19: How Have We Dealt and What Are the Lessons?
    Shin-Woo Kim
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Original Articles
A small window into the status of malaria in North Korea: estimation of imported malaria incidence among visitors from South Korea
Jisun Sung, Hae-Kwan Cheong, Ah-Young Lim, Jong-Hun Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2020;42:e2020068.   Published online November 21, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020068
  • 7,492 View
  • 175 Download
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study aimed to develop hypotheses on trends in malaria incidence in North Korea using malaria incidence among South Korean visitors to North Korea.
METHODS
The number of South Korean tourists who visited Mount Kumgang from 2000 to 2008 and the number of South Korean employees at the Kaesong Industrial Complex from 2005 to 2015 were obtained from the Korean Statistical Information Service. The number of malaria cases among South Koreans who visited North Korea was obtained from a previous report. The incidence of malaria per 100,000 person-years was calculated using these data and compared with the malaria incidence in North Korea derived from published articles.
RESULTS
A high incidence of malaria in 2001 and a sharp decline in the following years were observed in both South and North Korean data. Since then, North Korean data showed a relatively low and stable incidence, but the incidence among South Koreans visiting North Korea increased in 2006. Considering the trends in mass primaquine preventive treatment, floods, and economic growth rate, the incidence of malaria may have increased in North Korea in 2006. Since 2009, the incidence of malaria decreased gradually according to both South and North Korean data.
CONCLUSIONS
The trends of malaria incidence in North Korea could be reflected through its incidence among South Koreans who visited North Korea. For future inter-Korean collaboration aiming to eradicate malaria, we propose that a North Korean malaria monitoring system be established applying this method.
Summary
Korean summary
본 연구는 2000-2008년 금강산을 여행한 대한민국 국민과 2005-2015년 개성공단에서 근무한 대한민국 국민에서의 말라리아 발생률을 추정하여 국제사회에 보고된 북한의 말라리아 발생률과 비교 평가하였다. 향후 남북한의 교류가 활성화 되었을 때 북한을 방문하고 돌아온 국민에서의 말라리아 발생률 자료를 사용하여 북한 현지에서의 말라리아 발생률 현황 추이를 살펴볼 수 있을 것으로 보인다.
Main results of the Korea National Hospital Discharge In-depth Injury Survey, 2004-2016
Sung Ok Hong, Boae Kim, Joongho Jo, Yunhyung Kwon, Yeon-Kyeng Lee, Youngtaek Kim
Epidemiol Health. 2020;42:e2020044.   Published online June 20, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020044
  • 10,402 View
  • 149 Download
  • 7 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence of injuries and to identify their causes by classifying injuries according to various categories including age, sex, mechanism of injury, body parts injured, and place of injury.
METHODS
This study used data from the Korea National Hospital Discharge In-depth Injury Survey (KNHDIS) from 2004 to 2016. The KNHDIS is conducted annually by the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and its survey population includes all hospitalized patients discharged from medical institutions that have 100 or more beds, such as hospitals, general hospitals, and secondary community health centers. The number of injured cases is weighted and estimated using the mid-year estimated population of each year.
RESULTS
The injury discharge rate steadily increased since 2004 (1,505 per 100,000 population in 2004, 2,007 per 100,000 population in 2016) and most injuries were unintentional (annual average of 94.7%). On average, during the 13-year study period, the injury rate for males was 1.5 times as high as for females. The 2 main causes of injury were consistently traffic accidents and falls. Notably, the rate of injuries resulting from falls rose by 1.7-fold from 463 to 792 per 100,000 people, and exceeded the rate of traffic accidents in 2016.
CONCLUSIONS
The incidence of injuries steadily increased after the survey was first conducted, whereas mortality resulting from injuries mostly remained unchanged. This suggests that effective strategies and interventions should be reinforced to reduce unintentional injuries.
Summary
Korean summary
질병관리본부가 2005년부터 구축하여 운영 중에 있는 퇴원손상심층조사의 연도별 조사자료를 분석한 결과 10만명당 손상발생규모는 2004년 1,505명에서 2016년 2,007명으로 지속적으로 증가하였다. 이러한 꾸준한 증가 추세는, 손상으로 인한 사망률은 감소하였을지라도 손상 예방을 위한 효과적인 정책과 전략, 지속적인 모니터링이 필요성을 제시한다.

Citations

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  • The Impact of the Association between Cancer and Diabetes Mellitus on Mortality
    Sung-Soo Kim, Hun-Sung Kim
    Journal of Personalized Medicine.2022; 12(7): 1099.     CrossRef
  • Comparison of Prediction Models for Mortality Related to Injuries from Road Traffic Accidents after Correcting for Undersampling
    Yookyung Boo, Youngjin Choi
    International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health.2021; 18(11): 5604.     CrossRef
Case Report
Two cases of cholera O1 in South Batinah, Oman, April 2019: lessons learned
Zayid K. Al Mayahi, Nasser Al-Shaqsi, Hamid A. Elmutashi, Ali Al-Dhoyani, Azza Al Hattali, Khalid Salim, Issa S. Al Fulaiti, Mahmood S. Al Subhi
Epidemiol Health. 2019;41:e2019033.   Published online July 12, 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2019033
  • 10,722 View
  • 166 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
Cholera represents an ongoing threat to many low-income and middle-income countries, but some cases of cholera even occur in high-income countries. Therefore, to prevent or combat cholera outbreaks, it is necessary to maintain the capacity to rapidly detect cholera cases, implement infection control measures, and improve general hygiene in terms of the environment, water, and food. The 2 cases, 1 imported and 1 secondary, described herein are broadly indicative of areas that require improvement. These cases were missed at the primary health care stage, which should be the first detection point even for unusual diseases such as cholera, and the absence of strict infection control practices at the primary care level is believed to contribute to secondary cases of infection. This report also encourages countries to ensure that rapid diagnostic stool tests are available to enable quick detection, as well as to provide information to people travelling to areas where cholera is endemic.
Summary

Citations

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  • Perception of the health surveillance users on the health electronic surveillance network (HESN), Saudi Arabia, 2016
    Zayid K. Almayahi, Fahad Alswaidi, Abdullah Alzahrani
    Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association.2021;[Epub]     CrossRef
Brief Communication
Emergence of Neisseria meningitidis W135 in Cote d’Ivoire: laboratory based-surveillance
Man-Koumba Soumahoro, Clarisse Kouamé-Elogne, Jean-Claude Anné, Soualihou Noufé, Kouakou Christophe N’Guessan, Adèle Kacou-N’Douba, Thomas Hanslik, Mireille Dosso
Epidemiol Health. 2018;40:e2018058.   Published online November 28, 2018
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2018058
  • 10,753 View
  • 146 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
To describe the emergence of Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) W135 in Côte d’Ivoire and its characteristics compared to NmA.
METHODS
Data on Nm samples isolated at the National Reference Center for meningitis in Côte d’Ivoire between 2007 and 2012 were analyzed. Socio-demographic data and biological information on the samples were extracted from the database. Categorical variables, such as sex and the serotype of the bacteria, were compared using the Fisher exact test, while the distribution of continuous variables, such as age, was compared using the Wilcoxon test.
RESULTS
Among the 175 Nm samples, 57 were NmA, 4 were NmB, 13 were NmC, and 99 were NmW135. The geographical distribution of NmA and NmW135 did not show a significant difference according to age or sex. NmW135 was more common than NmA in the northern health districts of Cote d’Ivoire (85.9 vs. 45.5%; p<0.001). No sample of NmA has been isolated since 2009, while 95% of the type W135 samples were isolated between 2010 and 2012.
CONCLUSIONS
This study highlighted the emergence of NmW135 in Côte d’Ivoire, as well as the simultaneous disappearance of NmA. It is important to improve laboratory-based surveillance of meningitis to assess trends in the circulation of bacteria and to detect the emergence of new serogroups earlier.
Summary

Citations

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  • Resurgence of pneumococcal meningitis in Europe and Northern America
    D.L.H. Koelman, M.C. Brouwer, D. van de Beek
    Clinical Microbiology and Infection.2020; 26(2): 199.     CrossRef
  • Validation of a New Rapid Detection Test for Detection of Neisseria meningitidis A/C/W/X/Y Antigens in Cerebrospinal Fluid
    Cyrille H. Haddar, Aude Terrade, Paul Verhoeven, Berthe-Marie Njanpop-Lafourcade, Mireille Dosso, Fati Sidikou, Ali Elhaj Mahamane, Jean-Pierre Lombart, Aziza Razki, Eva Hong, Alain Agnememel, Evelyne Begaud, Yves Germani, Bruno Pozzetto, Muhamed-Kheir Ta
    Journal of Clinical Microbiology.2020;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Togbemabou Primous Martial Godjedo, Alidehou Jerrold Agbankpe, Moussiliou Noël Paraiso, Tamegnon Victorien Dougnon, Marie Hidjo, Lamine Baba-Moussa, Honore Bankole
    Advances in Public Health.2020; 2020: 1.     CrossRef
Original Article
Estimation of the size of the iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease outbreak associated with cadaveric dura mater grafts in Korea
Byoung-Hak Jeon, Jinseob Kim, Ganghyun Kim, Soochul Park, SangYun Kim, Hae-Kwan Cheong
Epidemiol Health. 2016;38:e2016059.   Published online December 19, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2016059
  • 12,047 View
  • 209 Download
  • 1 Web of Science
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
This study estimated the overall incidence of iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (iCJD) based on dura graft cases in Korea using a mathematical model.
METHODS
We estimated the number of annual dura grafts performed between 1980 and 1995 by applying the proportion of dura grafts recorded by the Health Insurance Review Agency claim dataset in Korea to the number of nationwide neurosurgery cases. The distribution of the incubation period was assumed to fall under a Weibull distribution with density function or a log-logistic distribution with density function.
RESULTS
The total number of neurosurgery procedures performed from 1980 to 1995 was estimated to be 263,945, and among those operations, 37% used dura graft products. Between the years of 1980 and 2020, our model predicted that the total number of iCJD cases would be between 14.9 and 33.2 (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.4 to 50.9). Notably, we estimated that the cumulative number of iCJD cases caused by dura grafts between 1980 and 2011 was approximately 13.3 to 27.3 (95% CI, 12.2 to 40.6).
CONCLUSIONS
Based on our model, we postulate that the incidence of iCJD will sharply decline from 2012 to 2020. However, additional new cases are still expected, which necessitates a strong national surveillance system.
Summary
Korean summary
국내 경막유래 의인성 크로이츠펠트-증후군 환자의 발생규모 추정 본 연구는 국내 가용한 모든 자료원을 활용하여 국내 의인성 CJD 위험인구를 추산하고 이를기반으로 발생 가능한 의인성 CJD 환자의 규모를 수학적 모형을 통해 추산하는 것을 목적으로 시행하였으며, 예측모형 결과 2020년까지 가파르게 감소할것으로 보이나, 추가 발생에 대비한 국가감시체계의 강화가 필요할것으로 사료된다.

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    Matt Stevenson, Lesley Uttley, Jeremy E Oakley, Christopher Carroll, Stephen E Chick, Ruth Wong
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REVIEW
Review of Brucellosis in Nepal
Krishna Prasad Acharya, Nirajan Niroula, Krishna Kaphle
Epidemiol Health. 2016;38:e2016042.   Published online October 1, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2016042
Retraction in: Epidemiol Health 2017;39(0):e2017018
  • 15,602 View
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  • 3 Crossref
MERS-Epidemiologic Investigation
Surveillance operation for the 141st confirmed case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus in response to the patient’s prior travel to Jeju Island
Jong-Myon Bae
Epidemiol Health. 2015;37:e2015035.   Published online August 7, 2015
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih/e2015035
  • 16,780 View
  • 172 Download
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
The provincial government of Jeju, South Korea, was notified that a 42-year-old man infected with the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus had gone sightseeing in Jeju Island. Although the visiting period might be interpreted as the incubation period of MERS, the province decided to conduct active surveillance to prevent a worst-case scenario. Based on the channel of movement of the patient, healthy isolation and active monitoring were conducted for persons who came in contact with the patient. During the active surveillance, none of the 56 persons in self-isolation and 123 persons under active monitoring became infected. This fact supports that MERS is not contagious during the incubation period.
Summary
Korean summary
141번 MERS 양성확진자에 대한 역학조사를 통해 잠복기간에 제주도를 여행한 것이 확인되었다. 이에 제주도 MERS 방역본부는 최악의 경우를 염두에 두고, 밀접접촉자 56명과 일상접촉자 123명을 각각 자택격리와 능동모니터링 대상자로 조치하였다. 잠복기 14일을 기준으로 감시체계를 운영하였지만, 양성감염자는 전무하였다. 이는 MERS의 잠복기 동안에는 감염력이 없다는 근거가 된다.

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  • Sources of Infection Among Confirmed Cases of COVID-19 in Jeju Province, Korea
    Moonkyong Hwang, Jong-Myon Bae
    Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health.2021; 54(4): 245.     CrossRef
  • A database of geopositioned Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus occurrences
    Rebecca E. Ramshaw, Ian D. Letourneau, Amy Y. Hong, Julia Hon, Julia D. Morgan, Joshua C. P. Osborne, Shreya Shirude, Maria D. Van Kerkhove, Simon I. Hay, David M. Pigott
    Scientific Data.2019;[Epub]     CrossRef
Data Profile
National Infectious Diseases Surveillance data of South Korea
Sunhee Park, Eunhee Cho
Epidemiol Health. 2014;36:e2014030.   Published online November 11, 2014
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih/e2014030
  • 18,630 View
  • 252 Download
  • 34 Web of Science
  • 28 Crossref
AbstractAbstract AbstractSummary PDFSupplementary Material
Abstract
The Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) operate infectious disease surveillance systems to monitor national disease incidence. Since 1954, Korea has collected data on various infectious diseases in accordance with the Infectious Disease Control and Prevention Act. All physicians (including those working in Oriental medicine) who diagnose a patient with an infectious disease or conduct a postmortem examination of an infectious disease case are obliged to report the disease to the system. These reported data are incorporated into the database of the National Infectious Disease Surveillance System, which has been providing web-based real-time surveillance data on infectious diseases since 2001. In addition, the KCDC analyzes reported data and publishes the Infectious Disease Surveillance Yearbook annually.
Summary
Korean summary
감염병웹통계(http://is.cdc.go.kr)에서는 전수감시 대상 54종 감염병에 대한지역별, 성별, 연령별, 감염지역별, 기간별, 전년대비 주간 발생현황 등 실시간 기간 검색이 가능하며, 검색된 통계를 표 또는 다양한 그래프로 볼 수 있으며, 또한 이러한 자료들은 엑셀로 다운로드하여 사용이 가능하다. 표본감시 대상 24종 감염병의 통계도 제공되고 있다.

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Original Articles
Factors Associated with a Low-sodium Diet: The Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Won Joon Lee, Hyeon Chang Kim, Sun Min Oh, Dong Phil Choi, Jaelim Cho, Il Suh
Epidemiol Health. 2013;35:e2013005.   Published online June 20, 2013
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih/e2013005
  • 16,656 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
<sec><title>OBJECTIVES</title><p>The low-sodium diet is a known preventive factor for hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Factors associated with low-sodium diets should be identified to reduce sodium intake effectively. This study was conducted to identify factors correlated with a low-sodium diet.</p></sec><sec><title>METHODS</title><p>This cross-sectional study analyzed data from a total of 14,539 Koreans aged 20 years or older, who participated in the Fourth (2007-2009) Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A low-sodium diet was defined as having ≤2,000 mg/day based on 24-hour recalls. Multiple logistic regression models were used to assess sex, age, education, number of family members, household income, occupation, alcohol drinking, total energy intake, frequency of eating out, and hypertension management status for their associations with low-sodium diets.</p></sec><sec><title>RESULTS</title><p>Among all participants, only 13.9% (n=2,016) had low-sodium diets. In the multivariate analysis, 40-49 years of age, clerical work jobs, higher total energy intake, and frequent eating out were inversely associated with low-sodium diets. And female sex and living-alone were associated with low-sodium diets. Lower frequency of eating out was significantly associated with low-sodium diets, even after adjusting for total energy intake and other potential confounders. Adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for a low-sodium diet were 1.97 (1.49-2.61), 1.47 (1.13-1.91), 1.24 (0.96-1.61), and 1.00 (reference) in people who eat out <1 time/month, 1-3 times/month, 1-6 times/week, and ≥1 time/day, respectively.</p></sec><sec><title>CONCLUSIONS</title><p>Our study suggests that sex, age, number of family members, occupation, total energy intake, and lower frequency of eating out were associated with a low-sodium diet in Korean adults.</p></sec>
Summary

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A Population Health Surveillance Theory
Farouk El Allaki, Michel Bigras-Poulin, Pascal Michel, André Ravel
Epidemiol Health. 2012;34:e2012007.   Published online November 30, 2012
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih/e2012007
  • 17,096 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
<sec><title>OBJECTIVES</title><p>Despite its extensive use, the term "Surveillance" often takes on various meanings in the scientific literature pertinent to public health and animal health. A critical appraisal of this literature also reveals ambiguities relating to the scope and necessary structural components underpinning the surveillance process. The authors hypothesized that these inconsistencies translate to real or perceived deficiencies in the conceptual framework of population health surveillance. This paper presents a population health surveillance theory framed upon an explicit conceptual system relative to health surveillance performed in human and animal populations.</p></sec><sec><title>METHODS</title><p>The population health surveillance theory reflects the authors' system of thinking and was based on a creative process.</p></sec><sec><title>RESULTS</title><p>Population health surveillance includes two broad components: one relating to the human organization (which includes expertise and the administrative program), and one relating to the system <italic>per se</italic> (which includes elements of design and method) and which can be viewed as a process. The population health surveillance process is made of five sequential interrelated steps: 1) a trigger or need, 2) problem formulation, 3) surveillance planning, 4) surveillance implementation, and 5) information communication and audit.</p></sec><sec><title>CONCLUSIONS</title><p>The population health surveillance theory provides a systematic way of understanding, organizing and evaluating the population health surveillance process.</p></sec>
Summary

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    Yutong Zhang, Ryan Simpson, Lauren Sallade, Emily Sanchez, Kyle Monahan, Elena Naumova
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    Ranya Özçelik, Franziska Remy-Wohlfender, Susanne Küker, Vivianne Visschers, Daniela Hadorn, Salome Dürr
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Evaluation of Acute Flaccid Paralysis in Hamadan, Iran from 2002 to 2009
Jalal Poorolajal, Shadi Ghasemi, Leila Nezamabadi Farahani, Atefeh Sadat Hosseini, Seyyed Jalal Bathaei, Ali Zahiri
Epidemiol Health. 2011;33:e2011011.   Published online November 16, 2011
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/epih/e2011011
  • 14,901 View
  • 106 Download
  • 9 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
<sec><title>OBJECTIVES</title><p>To achieve a polio-free certification in Iran, a nationwide active surveillance program for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) was set up following World Health Organization guidelines. This article describes the results of an eight-year surveillance of AFP in Hamadan, in the west of Iran.</p></sec><sec><title>METHODS</title><p>A standard set of minimum core variables were collected. All cases of non-polio AFP in children aged <15 years old were reported. Two stool specimens were collected within 14 days of the onset of paralysis.</p></sec><sec><title>RESULTS</title><p>During the eight-year survey, 88 AFP cases aged <15 years old were reported. About 40% (35/88) of cases were aged ≤5 years, 56% (49/88) were boys, 19 (21.6%) had fever at the onset of paralysis, 74 (84.0%) had complete paralysis within four days of onset, and 22 (24.7%) had asymmetric paralysis. More than one AFP case was detected per 100,000 children aged <15 years old in all years. The risk of AFP in patients aged <5 years old was almost double that of older patients. Guillain-Barré Syndrome was the major leading cause of AFP (66/88). Adequate stool specimens were collected from 85% of AFP patients. All stool specimens were tested virologically, but no wild polioviruses were detected.</p></sec><sec><title>CONCLUSION</title><p>The active surveillance of non-polio AFP was efficient over the last eight years and exceeded 1.0 case per 100,000 children aged <15 years old. Nonetheless, there was a decreasing trend in the detection of AFP cases during the last two years and should be the focus of the policymakers' special attention, although AFP cases were still above the target level.</p></sec>
Summary

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Brief Communication
A community-level Communicable Disease Surveillance System in a Metropolitan city.
Sun Seog Kweon, Hyung Cheol Park, Hyun Nam, Jin Su Choi
Korean J Epidemiol. 2008;30(2):294-300.   Published online December 31, 2008
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4178/kje.2008.30.2.294
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Abstract
OBJECTIVES
The surveillance of infectious diseases, which is crucial in public health, may also suffer from poor community support. In South Korea, the government operates several national surveillance system for the National notifiable infectious diseases(NNID). Some programs work satisfactorily but other programs may not be fully accepted at the community level which result in low participation and delayed report.
METHODS
May 2003, to improve the blind side of the National Surveillance System, a district health agency initiated a community based surveillance system for infectious diseases called as Communicable Disease Information Sharing System (CDISS) to complement the national program. As the name suggests, it underscores the mutual benefit of surveillance for public and private health sectors through partnership. With collaboration of participating private clinics and hospitals around the district, the health agency collects data and provides the health practitioners more up-to-dated information on the trend of infectious diseases than National level information. Total population of study area, Dong-gu which locate in the center of Gwangju-metropolitan city, is about 120,000 in 2005. Reporting facilities consist of 6 daycare clinics, 3 hospitals, and 1 university hospital, 2 local public health organizations.
RESULTS
CDISS was introduced in May 2003, and full system has been successfully operated since March 2004 with 10 participating facilities. Each reporting facility regularly sends the weekly reporting form, filled with the number of patients in last week, to Dong-gu District Health Center in every Wednesday. All data were organized in tables and graphs by weekly summarizing the reporting data and interpreted information. Feedback is done to reporting facilities until Friday through faxes, email, website (http://kjdisweb.richis.org) ?at least a week earlier than National Surveillance System.If reported data exceeded epidemic alert level, the community warnings are issued through mass-media and other means of public communication.During the period of CDISS operation, some epidemic events and sporadic outbreak occurred in Dong-gu were detected well-earlier than the notification at national level, such as chickenpox, viral enteritis, and epidemic keratoconjunctivitis(EKC).
CONCLUSIONS
The program has been functioning successfully with active community participation and revealed to be economic and effective way of disease surveillance in the community. Several episodes of disease epidemic were reported by the program well before the recognition of the epidemic at the national level. We suggest that the community surveillance program may well complement national surveillance system.
Summary

Epidemiol Health : Epidemiology and Health